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This dissertation examines the design, fabrication, and characterization of a superconducting lumped-element tunable LC resonator that is used to vary the coupling between two superconducting qubits. Some level of qubit-qubit coupling is needed to perform gating operations. However, with fixed coupling, single qubit operations become considerably more difficult due to dispersive shifts in their energy levels transitions that depend on the state of the other qubit. Ideally, one wants a system in which the qubit-qubit coupling can be turned off to allow for single qubit operations, and then turned back on to allow for multi-qubit gate operations. I present results on a device that has two fixed-frequency transmon qubits capacitively coupled to a tunable thin-film LC resonator. The resonator can be tuned in situ over a range of 4.14 GHz to 4.94 GHz by applying an external magnetic flux to two single-Josephson junction loops, which are incorporated into the resonator’s inductance. The qubits have 0-to-1 transition frequencies of 5.10 GHz and 4.74 GHz. To isolate the system and provide a means for reading out the state of the qubit readout, the device was mounted in a 3D Al microwave cavity with a TE101 mode resonance frequency of about 6.1 GHz. The flux-dependent transition frequencies of the system were measured and fit to results from a coupled Hamiltonian model. With the LC resonator tuned to its minimum resonance frequency, I observed a qubit-qubit dispersive shift of 2χ_qq≈ 0.1 MHz, which was less than the linewidth of the qubit transitions. This dispersive shift was sufficiently small to consider the coupling “off”, allowing single qubit operations. The qubit-qubit dispersive shift varied with the applied flux up to a maximum dispersive shift of 2χ_qq≈ 6 MHz. As a proof-of-principle, I present preliminary results on performing a CNOT gate operation on the qubits when the coupling was “on” with 2χ_qq≈ 4 MHz. This dissertation also includes observations of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time T1 of three Al/AlOx/Al transmons. We found that, in some cases, T1 increased by almost a factor of two as the temperature increased from 30 mK to 100 mK. We found that this anomalous behavior was consistent with loss due to non-equilibrium quasiparticles in a transmon where one electrode in the tunnel junction had a smaller volume and slightly smaller superconducting energy gap than the other electrode. At sufficiently low temperatures, non-equilibrium quasiparticles accumulate in the electrode with a smaller gap, leading to an increased density of quasiparticles at the junction and a corresponding decrease in the relaxation time. I present a model of this effect, use the model to extract the density of non-equilibrium quasiparticles in the device, and find the values of the two superconducting energy gaps.
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cutoff frequency... spin qubit
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In this thesis, the effects of a flow-induced oscillating flexible structure on the convective heat transfer of a plate heat exchanger in a vertical rectangular wind tunnel were experimentally investigated. A variable speed fan was used to create an air flow with speed ranging from 9 m/s to 20 m/s. A flexible structure was placed in the front of the plate heat exchanger, which would oscillate in the air flow. Different shapes and dimensions of flexible structures were tested. The temperature of the plate was monitored, and the steady-state temperature was recorded for each experimental condition. The oscillating motions of the flexible structures were captured with a high-speed camera. Compared to the steady flow convection, the use of the oscillation flexible structure can enhance the mixing of the high-temperature boundary flow with the lower temperature flow and disrupt the boundary layer. The length and width of the rectangular structures were found to have large influence on the oscillating characteristics and the convective heat transfer enhancement. Dimensionless parameters including flow-induced oscillation frequency, f^*, and coverage ratio, A^*, were also studied in order to discover the relationship between them. Experimental results showed that the structures with a rectangular shape can most significantly improve the convective heat transfer among those various shapes used in the present study. The average heat transfer coefficient was improved from 113 [W/(m^2*K)] to 161 [W/(m^2*K)] when the inlet wind velocity was 17.2 m/s, and that specific rectangular structure had a length of 0.075 [m] and a width of 0.102 [m].In addition, highest heat transfer performance was found when 0.22≤f^*≤0.32, which could be used for possible further design optimizations.
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Since 2006 it has been discovered experimentally that the superconducting state spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in several materials, such as Sr2RuO4, UPt3, URu2Si2, PrOs4Sb12, and Bi/Ni bilayers. This dissertation studies three physical phenomena related to time-reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) in these superconductors. The experimental evidence for TRSB comes from the magneto-optical polar Kerr effect, which is determined by the high frequency ac Hall conductivity. However, these superconductors are also expected to exhibit a spontaneous dc Hall effect in the absence of an applied magnetic field. In the first part of this dissertation we propose a method for measuring the low frequency Hall conductivity in superconductors with TRSB. The method is based on a Corbino disk geometry where an oscillating co-axial magnetic field induces circular electric field, which, in turn, induces radial charge oscillations due to the Hall conductivity. In the second part, we propose an explanation for the polar Kerr effect observed in the Hidden-Order phase of the heavy-fermion superconductor URu2Si2. Using a Ginzburg-Landau model for a complex order parameter, we show that the system can have a metastable ferromagnetic state, which produces the Kerr signal, even if the Hidden-Order state respects TRS. We predict that applying a reversed magnetic field should reset the system to the non-magnetic ground state, resulting in zero Kerr signal. In the third part of the dissertation, we investigate the conditions for the existence of a Majorana bound state on a vortex in a 2D d+id superconductor with strong spin-orbit coupling. This TRSB pairing was proposed earlier for the Ni/Bi bilayer. We find that the Majorana bound state can exist for a d+id pairing under conditions similar to those for s-wave pairing.
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