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  • Since the dawn of quantum information science, laser-cooled trapped atomic ions have been one of the most compelling systems for the physical realization of a quantum computer. By applying qubit state dependent forces to the ions, their collective motional modes can be used as a bus to realize entangling quantum gates. Ultrafast state-dependent kicks [1] can provide a universal set of quantum logic operations, in conjunction with ultrafast single qubit rotations [2], which uses only ultrafast laser pulses. This may present a clearer route to scaling a trapped ion processor [3]. In addition to the role that spin-dependent kicks (SDKs) play in quantum computation, their utility in fundamental quantum mechanics research is also apparent. In this thesis, we present a set of experiments which demonstrate some of the principle properties of SDKs including ion motion independence (we demonstrate single ion thermometry from the ground state to near room temperature and the largest Schrodinger cat state ever created in an oscillator), high speed operations (compared with conventional atom-laser interactions), and multi-qubit entanglement operations with speed that is not fundamentally limited by the trap oscillation frequency. We also present a method to provide higher stability in the radial mode ion oscillation frequencies of a linear radiofrequency (rf) Paul trap--a crucial factor when performing operations on the rf-sensitive modes. Finally, we present the highest atomic position sensitivity measurement of an isolated atom to date of ~0.5 nm Hz^(-1/2) with a minimum uncertainty of 1.7 nm using a 0.6 numerical aperature (NA) lens system, along with a method to correct aberrations and a direct position measurement of ion micromotion (the inherent oscillations of an ion trapped in an oscillating rf field). This development could be used to directly image atom motion in the quantum regime, along with sensing forces at the yoctonewton [10^(-24) N)] scale for gravity sensing, and 3D imaging of atoms from static to higher frequency motion. These ultrafast atomic qubit manipulation tools demonstrate inherent advantages over conventional techniques, offering a fundamentally distinct regime of control and speed not previously achievable.
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  • While the advanced coherent control of qubits is now routinely carried out in low frequency (GHz) systems like single spins, it is far more challenging to achieve for two-level systems in the optical domain. This is because the latter evolve typically in the THz range, calling for tools of ultrafast, coherent, nonlinear optics. Using four-wave mixing micro-spectroscopy, we here measure the optically driven Bloch vector dynamics of a single exciton confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. In a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we reveal the intrinsic Rabi oscillation dynamics by monitoring both central exciton quantities, i.e., its occupation and the microscopic coherence, as resolved by the four-wave mixing technique. In the frequency domain this oscillation generates the Autler-Townes splitting of the light-exciton dressed states, directly seen in the four-wave mixing spectra. We further demonstrate that the coupling to acoustic phonons strongly influences the FWM dynamics on the picosecond timescale, because it leads to transitions between the dressed states.
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  • Superconducting qubits
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  • While the advanced coherent control of qubits is now routinely carried out in low frequency (GHz) systems like single spins, it is far more challenging to achieve for two-level systems in the optical domain. This is because the latter evolve typically in the THz range, calling for tools of ultrafast, coherent, nonlinear optics. Using four-wave mixing micro-spectroscopy, we here measure the optically driven Bloch vector dynamics of a single exciton confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. In a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we reveal the intrinsic Rabi oscillation dynamics by monitoring both central exciton quantities, i.e., its occupation and the microscopic coherence, as resolved by the four-wave mixing technique. In the frequency domain this oscillation generates the Autler-Townes splitting of the light-exciton dressed states, directly seen in the four-wave mixing spectra. We further demonstrate that the coupling to acoustic phonons strongly influences the FWM dynamics on the picosecond timescale, because it leads to transitions between the dressed states.
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  • Large-scale quantum technologies require exquisite control over many individual quantum systems. Typically, such systems are very sensitive to environmental fluctuations, and diagnosing errors via measurements causes unavoidable perturbations. In this work we present an in situ frequency locking technique that monitors and corrects frequency variations in single photon sources based on microring resonators. By using the same classical laser fields required for photon generation as a probe to diagnose variations in the resonator frequency, our protocol applies feedback control to correct photon frequency errors in parallel to the optical quantum computation without disturbing the physical qubit. We implement our technique on a silicon photonic device and demonstrate sub 1 pm frequency stabilization in the presence of applied environmental noise, corresponding to a fractional frequency drift of <1% of a photon linewidth. Using these methods we demonstrate feedback controlled quantum state engineering. By distributing a single local oscillator across a single chip or network of chips, our approach enables frequency locking of many single photon sources for large-scale photonic quantum technologies.
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  • Large-scale quantum technologies require exquisite control over many individual quantum systems. Typically, such systems are very sensitive to environmental fluctuations, and diagnosing errors via measurements causes unavoidable perturbations. In this work we present an in situ frequency locking technique that monitors and corrects frequency variations in single photon sources based on microring resonators. By using the same classical laser fields required for photon generation as a probe to diagnose variations in the resonator frequency, our protocol applies feedback control to correct photon frequency errors in parallel to the optical quantum computation without disturbing the physical qubit. We implement our technique on a silicon photonic device and demonstrate sub 1 pm frequency stabilization in the presence of applied environmental noise, corresponding to a fractional frequency drift of <1% of a photon linewidth. Using these methods we demonstrate feedback controlled quantum state engineering. By distributing a single local oscillator across a single chip or network of chips, our approach enables frequency locking of many single photon sources for large-scale photonic quantum technologies.
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  • We implement distinct quantum gates in parallel on two entangled frequency-bin qubits for the first time. Our basic quantum operation controls the spectral overlap between adjacent frequency bins, allowing us to observe frequency-bin Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with a visibility of 0.971±0.007, a record for two photons of different colors. By integrating this tunability with frequency parallelization, we synthesize independent gates on entangled qubits in the same optical fiber and flip their spectral correlations. The ultralow noise of our gates preserves entanglement purity, as evidenced by a 9.8σ violation of an entropic separability bound. Our results constitute the first closed, user-defined gates on frequency-bin qubits in parallel, with application to the development of frequency-based quantum information processing.
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  • We implement distinct quantum gates in parallel on two entangled frequency-bin qubits for the first time. Our basic quantum operation controls the spectral overlap between adjacent frequency bins, allowing us to observe frequency-bin Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with a visibility of 0.971±0.007, a record for two photons of different colors. By integrating this tunability with frequency parallelization, we synthesize independent gates on entangled qubits in the same optical fiber and flip their spectral correlations. The ultralow noise of our gates preserves entanglement purity, as evidenced by a 9.8σ violation of an entropic separability bound. Our results constitute the first closed, user-defined gates on frequency-bin qubits in parallel, with application to the development of frequency-based quantum information processing.
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  • Singlet-Triplet Qubits
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  • Among the objectives for large-scale quantum computation is the quantum interconnect: a device that uses photons to interface qubits that otherwise could not interact. However, the current approaches require photons indistinguishable in frequency—a major challenge for systems experiencing different local environments or of different physical compositions altogether. Here, we develop an entirely new platform that actually exploits such frequency mismatch for processing quantum information. Labeled “spectral linear optical quantum computation” (spectral LOQC), our protocol offers favorable linear scaling of optical resources and enjoys an unprecedented degree of parallelism, as an arbitrary N-qubit quantum gate may be performed in parallel on multiple N-qubit sets in the same linear optical device. Not only does spectral LOQC offer new potential for optical interconnects, but it also brings the ubiquitous technology of high-speed fiber optics to bear on photonic quantum information, making wavelength-configurable and robust optical quantum systems within reach.
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