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The standardization of grayscale display is essentially significant for image signal communication, transmission, and terminal reading. The key step of this standardization is establishing a traceable equipment of grayscale. As a relative value, grayscale is transferred to two different absolute values to satisfy different traceability methods, including optical density for hardcopy image and luminance for softcopy. For luminance, a generation equipment is designed to build the relationship between luminance and grayscale. In this work, novel equipment is established using digital light processing (DLP) by time-frequency modulation, and the corresponding uncertainty is analyzed. The experiment result shows that this digital equipment builds the relationship between grayscale and luminance in the range of 0.16-4000 cd/m2. It enables traceable measurement of grayscale to luminance on this equipment with high accuracy and can provide a standardized reference for the display of grayscale images in the fields of medicine, remote sensing, non-destructive testing, etc.
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BACKGROUND:Multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is becoming endemic in health care settings around the world. Baseline data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of specific lineages of E. coli circulating in developing countries like India is currently lacking. METHODS:Whole-genome sequencing was performed for 60 MDR E. coli isolates. The analysis was performed at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level resolution to identify the presence of their virulence and AMR genes. RESULTS:Genome comparison revealed the presence of ST-131 global MDR and ST410 as emerging-MDR clades of E. coli in India. AMR gene profile for cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance differed between the clades. Genotypes blaCTX-M-15 and blaNDM-5 were common among cephalosporinases and carbapenemases, respectively. For aminoglycoside resistance, rmtB was positive for 31.7% of the isolates, of which 95% were co-harboring carbapenemases. In addition, the FimH types and virulence gene profile positively correlated with the SNP based phylogeny, and also revealed the evolution of MDR clones among the study population with temporal accumulation of SNPs. The predominant clone was ST167 (blaNDM lineage) followed by ST405 (global clone ST131 equivalent) and ST410 (fast spreading high risk clone). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report on the whole genome analysis of MDR E. coli lineages circulating in India. Data from this study will provide public health agencies with baseline information on AMR and virulent genes in pathogenic E. coli in the region.
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Funder: Wellcome Trust
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Collagen fibrils are central to the molecular organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to defining the cellular microenvironment. Glycation of collagen fibrils is known to impact on cell adhesion and migration in the context of cancer and in model studies, glycation of collagen molecules has been shown to affect the binding of other ECM components to collagen. Here we use TEM to show that ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) glycation of collagen fibrils - potentially important in the microenvironment of actively dividing cells, such as cancer cells - disrupts the longitudinal ordering of the molecules in collagen fibrils and, using KFM and FLiM, that R5P-glycated collagen fibrils have a more negative surface charge than unglycated fibrils. Altered molecular arrangement can be expected to impact on the accessibility of cell adhesion sites and altered fibril surface charge on the integrity of the extracellular matrix structure surrounding glycated collagen fibrils. Both effects are highly relevant for cell adhesion and migration within the tumour microenvironment.
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BACKGROUND:Pancreatic organoid systems have recently been described for the in vitro culture of pancreatic ductal cells from mouse and human. Mouse pancreatic organoids exhibit unlimited expansion potential, while previously reported human pancreas organoid (hPO) cultures do not expand efficiently long-term in a chemically defined, serum-free medium. We sought to generate a 3D culture system for long-term expansion of human pancreas ductal cells as hPOs to serve as the basis for studies of human pancreas ductal epithelium, exocrine pancreatic diseases and the development of a genomically stable replacement cell therapy for diabetes mellitus. RESULTS:Our chemically defined, serum-free, human pancreas organoid culture medium supports the generation and expansion of hPOs with high efficiency from both fresh and cryopreserved primary tissue. hPOs can be expanded from a single cell, enabling their genetic manipulation and generation of clonal cultures. hPOs expanded for months in vitro maintain their ductal morphology, biomarker expression and chromosomal integrity. Xenografts of hPOs survive long-term in vivo when transplanted into the pancreas of immunodeficient mice. Notably, mouse orthotopic transplants show no signs of tumorigenicity. Crucially, our medium also supports the establishment and expansion of hPOs in a chemically defined, modifiable and scalable, biomimetic hydrogel. CONCLUSIONS:hPOs can be expanded long-term, from both fresh and cryopreserved human pancreas tissue in a chemically defined, serum-free medium with no detectable tumorigenicity. hPOs can be clonally expanded, genetically manipulated and are amenable to culture in a chemically defined hydrogel. hPOs therefore represent an abundant source of pancreas ductal cells that retain the characteristics of the tissue-of-origin, which opens up avenues for modelling diseases of the ductal epithelium and increasing understanding of human pancreas exocrine biology as well as for potentially producing insulin-secreting cells for the treatment of diabetes.
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A major difficulty in studies of the brain, from the molecular to large-scale network level, is ensuring the accuracy and reliability of results, since repeatability has been a problem in studies utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and positron-emission tomography (PET). More generally, an effort to replicate psychological studies has shown that the original results were unambiguously reobtained only 39% of the time. It has been suggested that researchers must undertake studies to identify factors that reduce reliability and conduct more carefully controlled studies to improve reliability. In our previous work, we examined whether changes in hand/arm posture can have a confounding effect on task-related brain activity. Here we show a solution to enhance reproducibility in a NIRS study in a hearing task. The results showed that crossed posture can lead to different results than parallel posture with respect to asymmetric functional connectivity, especially during non-resting state. Even when the only task is listening to speech stimuli, participants should be asked to place their hands on a surface and feet on the floor and keep the same stable posture to increase reproducibility of results. To achieve accurate reliability and reproductively of results, stable hand posture through the experiment is important.
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India is located at a critical geographic crossroads for understanding the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Asia and Oceania. Here we report evidence for long-term human occupation, spanning the last ~80 thousand years, at the site of Dhaba in the Middle Son River Valley of Central India. An unchanging stone tool industry is found at Dhaba spanning the Toba eruption of ~74 ka (i.e., the Youngest Toba Tuff, YTT) bracketed between ages of 79.6 ± 3.2 and 65.2 ± 3.1 ka, with the introduction of microlithic technology ~48 ka. The lithic industry from Dhaba strongly resembles stone tool assemblages from the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Arabia, and the earliest artefacts from Australia, suggesting that it is likely the product of Homo sapiens as they dispersed eastward out of Africa.
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All B cell leukaemias and a substantial fraction of lymphomas display a natural niche residency in the bone marrow. While the bone marrow compartment may only be one of several sites of disease manifestations, the strong clinical significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow strongly suggests that privileged niches exist in this anatomical site favouring central elements of malignant transformation. Here, the co-existence of two hierarchical systems, originating from haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, has extensively been characterised with regard to regulation of the former (blood production) by the latter. How these two systems cooperate under pathological conditions is far less understood and is the focus of many current investigations. More recent single-cell sequencing techniques have now identified an unappreciated cellular heterogeneity of the bone marrow microenvironment. How each of these cell subtypes interact with each other and regulate normal and malignant haematopoiesis remains to be investigated. Here we review the evidences of how bone marrow stroma cells and malignant B cells reciprocally interact. Evidently from published data, these cell-cell interactions induce profound changes in signalling, gene expression and metabolic adaptations. While the past research has largely focussed on understanding changes imposed by stroma- on tumour cells, it is now clear that tumour-cell contact also has fundamental ramifications for the biology of stroma cells. Their careful characterisations are not only interesting from a scientific biological viewpoint but also relevant to clinical practice: Since tumour cells heavily depend on stroma cells for cell survival, proliferation and dissemination, interference with bone marrow stroma-tumour interactions bear therapeutic potential. The molecular characterisation of tumour-stroma interactions can identify new vulnerabilities, which could be therapeutically exploited.
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Photocatalysis is deemed as an appealing strategy to exploit solar energy for simultaneous fuel production and pollutant utilisation. However, current photocatalytic systems rarely couple both processes and suffer from restricted scalability and sustainability as they use toxic and/or ultraviolet light harvesters, combined with noble- metal co-catalysts under corrosive conditions. Here, we show the synthesis of ultra- scalable and low-cost carbon nanodots from lignocellulosic waste, which when combined with a non-precious Ni-based co-catalyst, use visible light to drive H2 production in untreated river and sea water. Organic pollutants and chloride anions in these untreated media do not only allow unhindered photocatalytic activities, but also function as electron donors leading to economical pollutant utilisation. This system combines Earth’s most abundant resources (biomass, solar energy, untreated water), and functions at ambient temperature, pressure and physiological pH creating perspectives for simultaneous fuel synthesis and pollutant utilisation of sustainable and practical character
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