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Abstract - In the first section, Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?", though originally intended to explain atomic structure, helps explain gravitational-electromagnetic (G-EM) unity by being used as inspiration for a “vector-tensor-scalar geometry”. The geometry is then extended, nearly a hundred years later, into “bits (binary digits) and topology” to complete G-EM unity. It also interprets the origin of mass, and of the Higgs boson, in terms of G-EM unity: thus relating the Higgs field to the supposedly unrelated gravitational field. In sections 2 and 3, that paper is utilized in its original context by applying vector-tensor-scalar geometry to the Weak force’s bosons, then to the Strong force’s gluons: extending the previous G-EM unification to the remaining fundamental forces. Section 4 is reminiscent of something the Danish physicist Niels Bohr is reported to have said last century, “Your theory is crazy, but it’s not crazy enough to be true.” This article reaches a final conclusion that is, in a word, crazy. But the conclusion appears to be inescapable if mathematics has any value – and the article would therefore be crazy enough to be true. The vector-tensor-scalar relationship can substitute Earth for the Higgs boson and field, making our planet infinite and eternal. Obeying the Copernican principle that Earth does not rest in a special physical position in the universe, everything in the cosmos would be infinite and eternal, composing the Unified Field of the Block Universe Albert Einstein believed in. If the Earth, and everything else, is infinite and eternal; there can be no Big Bang originating time and the entire universe. Experiments suggesting that entanglement pervades all space and all time are used to suggest the Cosmic Microwave Background fills the entire sky without being produced by the Big Bang. Conclusion The work is important and requires consideration because both theoretical and experimental physics have uncovered extremely powerful science in the past hundred years which needs to be recognized as susceptible to other interpretations. These other interpretations refer to the outgrowths of General Relativity, quantum mechanics and Unification known as the relationship between gravity and matter, the Higgs boson and field, the subatomic nuclear forces, and universal expansion from the Big Bang. These other interpretations must, of course, be consistent with known data – but the very fact that they exist would stop science from falling into the dead-end of believing current interpretations are correct because they’re the only ones that can exist. Such belief prevents any possibility of progress and is the trap that religions fell into. Nobody wants science to become nothing more than dogma and creation myth. While there may be small parts of this article that will be seen as too speculative, the speculation is purely scientific and could turn out to be correct.
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The fluorescence peak profiles for the ARISA genotypes analysed with ABI Prism 3130xl Genetic Analyser and the GeneMapper v.5.0 software (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California, USA). For the 83 strains isolated from Finland, we also determined the ARISA (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) genotypes following the procedure described by Suomalainen et al. [8]. However, the previously published method was modified so that ABI Prism 3130xl Genetic Analyser is used instead of LI-COR 4200 automatic sequencer The analysis revealed that ARISA genotypes associate uniformly with the clusters from the MLSA scheme. Briefly, the PCR reaction mixture (total volume 10 ul) contained 1X DreamTaq Buffer (Thermo Scientific), 0.2 mM dNTPs (Thermo Scientific), 0.5 μM reverse primer (23Sr, 5’-GGGTTBCCCCATTCRG-3), 0.44 μM forward primer (rD1f, 5’-GGCTGGATCACCTCCTT-3’), 0.06 μM 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) labelled forward primer (rD1f), 1 U of DreamTaq DNA Polymerase (Thermo Scientific) and 1 μl of template DNA. The PCR reactions were carried out using Bio-Rad C1000 or S1000 thermal cyclers (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA). The thermo-cycling conditions included initial denaturation at 95 °C for 2 min followed by 30 cycles of amplification (94 °C for 30 s, 52 °C for 30 s, 72 °C for 3 min) and a final extension at 72 °C for 15 min. The PCR products were denatured with formamide and GeneScanTM 1200 LIZ Size Standard was added. Products were separated with an ABI Prism 3130xl Genetic Analyser, and visualized with GeneMapper v.5.0 software (all Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California, USA). Based on the fluorescence peak profiles and using the strains from Suomalainen et al. [8] as positive controls, the 87 F. columnare strains were designated into ARISA genotypes A to H [8]. (PDF 222 kb)
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Figure S1. Genes in PacBio and short-read contigs. Figure S2. Optimization for identification of phage orthologous groups (POGs). Figure S3. Sequence alignments of two highly homologous but distinct plasmid CCs in three samples. Figure S4. Similarity search of 82 CCs against the public plasmid/phage database. Figure S5. Mapping of PacBio subreads and short reads to the five crAssphage CCs. Figure S6. Dot plot of terminal direct repeats in the five crAssphages. Figure S7. GC skews in the linear crAssphage genomes. Figure S8. Mapping of PacBio subreads to two phage CCs. Figure S9. Phylogenetic tree of 101 high-quality chromosome bins and 181 known genomes. Figure S10. Host prediction by methylation motif similarity between eMGEs and HQ chromosome bins in the PacBio JP dataset. Figure S11. Host-plasmid network. The predicted host-plasmid relationships were summarized and visualized as a network. Figure S12. Ratios of reads mapped to plasmids and crAssphages in 413 metagenomic data sets and proportions of crAssphage-positive individuals. Figure S13. Association analysis of the abundance of crAssphages with subjectsâ age, BMI, and sex in the IGCJ dataset. Figure S14. Antibiotic resistance genes in plasmids in the IGCJ dataset. (PDF 6178 kb)
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Additional file 3. Table S1: Genomic correlationsâ Âąâ standard deviations estimated between ten male and ten female growth and reproductive traits in Brahman cattle.
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Additional file 1: Supplementary information. Supplementary materials and methods. Table S1. Molecular and epigenetic features of the included MDS, CMML and AML patients randomized for either vitamin C or placebo supplementation. Table S2. Mutations in DNMT3A, IDH2 and TET2 in the enrolled MDS, CMML and AML patients. Table S3. Plasma vitamin C (vitC) concentration differentials between baseline (Pre vitC, C1D5, C2D1) and after short-term (Initial vitC, 4 d, C2D5) and longer-term (Stable vitC, 4–8 weeks, C3D1, C3D5, C3D28) supplementation of either 500 mg of vitamin C or placebo tablets. Table S4. Associations between plasma levels of vitamin C and plasma levels of ferritin, iron, and transferrin during each treatment cycle/treatment day (CxDx). Table S5. A) Associations between plasma levels of vitamin C at baseline and IPSS–R score (MDS prognostic risk category), haemoglobin, blast percentage, number of blood transfusions, and WHO diagnosis. B) Associations between baseline levels of global 5mC or 5hmC/5mC and plasma vitamin C level or age. Fig S1. Plasma vitamin C levels at baseline for patients with and without mutations in the DNA methylation regulators TET2 (A; n = 7), DNMT3A (B; n = 5) and IDH2 (n = 2). Fig S2. Plasma levels of iron, ferritin, and transferrin in all participants in the placebo and vitamin C arm, respectively, as a function of treatment cycle and day.
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In this note, we prove that solving a {\bf crossword puzzle} is an $NP$-complete problem by reducing from {\bf EXACT 3-SET COVER}.
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English version of the questionnaire and DCE. (PDF 841 kb)
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Additional file 1. Questionnaire in English version.
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Table S3. MMAT Risk of Bias Summary. (DOCX 110 kb)
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Patient and Carer Interview Guide. Semi-structured interview guide for patient and carer interviewees. (PDF 125 kb)
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