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  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, FerroElectrics, and Frequency Control... oscillator
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  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, FerroElectrics, and Frequency Control... oscillator
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  • Quantum states can contain correlations which are stronger than is possible in classical systems. Quantum information technologies use these correlations, which are known as entanglement, as a resource for implementing novel protocols in a diverse range of fields such as cryptography, teleportation and computing. However, current methods for generating the required entangled states are not necessarily robust against perturbations in the proposed systems. In this thesis, techniques will be developed for robustly generating the entangled states needed for these exciting new technologies. The thesis starts by presenting some basic concepts in quantum information proccessing. In Ch. 2, the numerical methods which will be used to generate solutions for the dynamic systems in this thesis are presented. It is argued that using a GPU-accelerated staggered leapfrog technique provides a very efficient method for propagating the wave function. In Ch. 3, a new method for generating maximally entangled two-qubit states using a pair of interacting particles in a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is proposed. The robustness of this technique is demonstrated both analytically and numerically for a variety of interaction potentials. When the two qubits are initially in the same state, no entanglement is generated as there is no direct qubit-qubit interaction. Therefore, for an arbitrary initial state, this process implements a root-of-swap entangling quantum gate. Some possible physical implementations of this proposal for low-dimensional semiconductor systems are suggested. One of the most commonly used qubits is the spin of an electron. However, in semiconductors, the spin-orbit interaction can couple this qubit to the electron's momentum. In order to incorporate this e ffect into our numerical simulations, a new discretisation of this interaction is presented in Ch. 4 which is signi ficantly more accurate than traditional methods. This technique is shown to be similar to the standard discretisation for magnetic fields. In Ch. 5, a simple spin-precession model is presented to predict the eff ect of the spin-orbit interaction on the entangling scheme of Ch. 3. It is shown that the root-of-swap quantum gate can be restored by introducing an additional constraint on the system. The robustness of the gate to perturbations in this constraint is demonstrated by presenting numerical solutions using the methods of Ch. 4.
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  • Oscillators
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  • Sources of entangled pairs of photons can be used for encoding signals in quantum-encrypted communications, allowing a sender, Alice, and a receiver, Bob, to exchange keys without the possibility of eavesdropping. In fact, any quantum information system would require single and entangled photons to serve as qubits. For this purpose, semiconductor quantum dots (QD) have been extensively studied for their ability to produce entangled light and function as single photon sources. The quality of such sources is evaluated based on three criteria: high efficiency, small multi-photon probability, and quantum indistinguishability. In this work, a simple quantum dot-based LED (E-LED) was used as a quantum light source for on-demand emission, indicating the potential for use as quantum information devices. Limitations of the device include the fine-structure splitting of the quantum dot excitons, their coherence lengths and charge carrier interactions in the structure. The quantum dot-based light emitting diode was initially shown to operate in pulsed mode under AC bias frequencies of up to several hundreds of MHz, without compromising the quality of emission. In a Hong-ou-Mandel interference type experiment, the quantum dot photons were shown to interfere with dissimilar photons from a laser, achieving high two-photon interference (TPI) visibilities. Quantum entanglement from a QD photon pair was also measured in pulsed mode, where the QD-based entangled-LED (E-LED) was electrically injected at a frequency of 203 MHz. After verifying indistinguishability and good entanglement properties from the QD photons under the above conditions, a quantum relay over 1km of fibre was demonstrated, using input qubits from a laser source. The average relay fidelity was high enough to allow for error correction for this BB84-type scheme. To improve the properties of the QD emission, an E-LED was developed based on droplet epitaxy (D-E) QDs, using a different QD growth technique. The relevant chapter outlines the process of QD growth and finally demonstration of quantum entanglement from an electrically injected diode, yielding improvements compared to previous E-LED devices. For the same reason, an alternative method of E-LED operation based on resonant two-photon excitation of the QD was explored. Analysis of Rabi oscillations in a quantum dot with a bound exciton state demonstrated coupling of the ground state and the biexciton state by the external oscillating field of a laser, therefore allowing the transition between the two states. The results include a considerable improvement in the coherence length of the QD emission, which is crucial for future quantum network applications. We believe that extending this research can find application in quantum cryptography and in realising the interface of a quantum network, based on semiconductor nanotechnology.
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  • Synchronization is a universal phenomenon that is important both in fundamental studies and in technical applications. Here we investigate synchronization in the simplest quantum-mechanical scenario possible, i.e., a quantum-mechanical self-sustained oscillator coupled to an external harmonic drive. Using the power spectrum we analyze synchronization in terms of frequency entrainment and frequency locking in close analogy to the classical case. We show that there is a steplike crossover to a synchronized state as a function of the driving strength. In contrast to the classical case, there is a finite threshold value in driving. Quantum noise reduces the synchronized region and leads to a deviation from strict frequency locking.
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  • Synchronization is a universal concept in nonlinear science but has received little attention in thermoacoustics. In this numerical study, we take a dynamical systems approach to investigating the influence of harmonic acoustic forcing on three different types of self-excited thermoacoustic oscillations: periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic. When the periodic system is forced, we find that: (i) at low forcing amplitudes, it responds at both the forcing frequency and the natural (self-excited) frequency, as well as at their linear combinations, indicating quasi-periodicity; (ii) above a critical forcing amplitude, the system locks in to the forcing; (iii) the bifurcations leading up to lock-in and the critical forcing amplitude required for lock-in depend on the proximity of the forcing frequency to the natural frequency; (iv) the response amplitude at lock-in may be larger or smaller than that of the unforced system and the system can exhibit hysteresis and the jump phenomenon owing to a cusp catastrophe; and (v) at forcing amplitudes above lock-in, the oscillations can become unstable and transition to chaos, or switch between different stable attractors depending on the forcing amplitude. When the quasi-periodic system is forced at a frequency equal to one of the two characteristic frequencies of the torus attractor, we find that lock-in occurs via a saddle-node bifurcation with frequency pulling. When the chaotic system is forced at a frequency close to the dominant frequency of its strange attractor, we find that it is possible to destroy chaos and establish stable periodic oscillations. These results show that the open-loop application of harmonic acoustic forcing can be an effective strategy for controlling periodic or aperiodic thermoacoustic oscillations. In some cases, we find that such forcing can reduce the response amplitude by up to 90 %, making it a viable way to weaken thermoacoustic oscillations.
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  • The entorhinal-hippocampal system is an important circuit in the brain, essential for certain cognitive tasks such as memory and navigation. Different gamma oscillations occur in this circuit, with the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), CA3, and CA1 all generating gamma oscillations with different properties. These three gamma oscillations converge within CA1, where much work has gone into trying to isolate them from each other. Here we compared the gamma generators in the mEC, CA3, and CA1 using optogenetically-induced theta-gamma oscillations. Expressing channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in principal neurons in each of the three regions allowed for induction of gamma oscillations via sinusoidal blue light stimulation at theta frequency. Recording the oscillations in CA1 in vivo, we found that CA3 stimulation induced slower gamma oscillations than CA1 stimulation, matching in vivo reports of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 gamma oscillations. In brain slices ex vivo, optogenetic stimulation of CA3 induced slower gamma oscillations than stimulation of either mEC and CA1, whose gamma oscillations were of similar frequency. All three gamma oscillations had a current sink-source pair between the perisomatic and dendritic layers of the same region. Taking advantage of this powerful model to analyse gamma frequency mechanisms in slice, we showed using pharmacology that all three gamma oscillations were dependent on the same types of synaptic receptor, being abolished by blockade of either GABA(A) receptors or AMPA/kainate receptors, and insensitive to blockade of NMDA receptors. These results indicate that a fast excitatory-inhibitory feedback loop underlies the generation of gamma oscillations in all three regions.
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  • Classically, the tendency towards spontaneous synchronization is strongest if the natural frequencies of the self-oscillators are as close as possible. We show that this wisdom fails in the deep quantum regime, where the uncertainty of amplitude narrows down to the level of single quanta. Under these circumstances identical self-oscillators cannot synchronize and detuning their frequencies can actually help synchronization. The effect can be understood in a simple picture: Interaction requires an exchange of energy. In the quantum regime, the possible quanta of energy are discrete. If the extractable energy of one oscillator does not exactly match the amount the second oscillator may absorb, interaction, and thereby synchronization, is blocked. We demonstrate this effect, which we coin quantum synchronization blockade, in the minimal example of two Kerr-type self-oscillators and predict consequences for small oscillator networks, where synchronization between blocked oscillators can be mediated via a detuned oscillator. We also propose concrete implementations with superconducting circuits and trapped ions. This paves the way for investigations of new quantum synchronization phenomena in oscillator networks both theoretically and experimentally.
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  • Organisms use circadian clocks to generate 24-h rhythms in gene expression. However, the clock can interact with other pathways to generate shorter period oscillations. It remains unclear how these different frequencies are generated. Here, we examine this problem by studying the coupling of the clock to the alternative sigma factor $\textit{sigC}$ in the cyanobacterium $\textit{Synechococcus elongatus}$. Using single-cell microscopy, we find that $\textit{psbAI}$, a key photosynthesis gene regulated by both $\textit{sigC}$ and the clock, is activated with two peaks of gene expression every circadian cycle under constant low light. This two-peak oscillation is dependent on $\textit{sigC}$, without which $\textit{psbAI}$ rhythms revert to one oscillatory peak per day. We also observe two circadian peaks of elongation rate, which are dependent on $\textit{sigC}$, suggesting a role for the frequency doubling in modulating growth. We propose that the two-peak rhythm in $\textit{psbAI}$ expression is generated by an incoherent feedforward loop between the clock, $\textit{sigC}$ and $\textit{psbAI}$. Modelling and experiments suggest that this could be a general network motif to allow frequency doubling of outputs.
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