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The thesis reports on research in the general field of light interaction with matter. According to the topics addressed, it can be naturally divided into two parts: Part I, many-body aspects of the Rabi **oscillations** which a two-level systems undergoes under a strong resonant drive; and Part II, absorption of the ac field between the spectrum branches of two-dimensional fermions that are split by the combined action of Zeeman and spin-orbit (SO) fields. The focus of Part I is the following many-body effects that modify the conventional Rabi **oscillations**: Chapter 1, coupling of a two-level system to a single vibrational mode of the environment. Chapter 2, correlated Rabi **oscillations** in two electron-hole systems coupled by tunneling with strong electron-hole attraction. In Chapter 1, a new effect of Rabi-vibronic resonance is uncovered. If the **frequency** of the Rabi **oscillations**, R, is close to the **frequency**, !0, of the vibrational mode, the **oscillations** acquire a collective character. It is demonstrated that the actual **frequency** of the collective **oscillations** exhibits a bistable behavior as a function of ΩR ω0. The main finding in Chapter 2 is, that the Fourier spectrum of the Rabi **oscillations** in two coupled electron-hole systems undergoes a strong transformation with increasing ΩR. For ΩR smaller than the tunneling **frequency**, the spectrum is dominated by a low-**frequency** (<

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This work focuses on the study of low-magnetic field (<10mT) magnetoresistance effects of organic polymer diodes based on the n-conjugated polymer MEH-PPV in presence of **oscillating** magnetic fields in the radio **frequency** range. In these conditions, the combination of static and ac fields can magnetic resonantly influence the electronspin degree of freedom of localized charge-carrier states. As long as bipolar injection conditions influence the net current of the polymer diode, magnetic-resonance changes of the charge carrier spin state can affect spin-dependent charge carrier recombination rates and therefore the material's conductivity. Since the observed spin-dependent recombination currents are governed by the charge carrier pair's spin-permutation symmetry, magnetoresistance measurements under ac drive allow for the electrical detection of magnetic resonance under very low magnetic field conditions where inductive magnetic resonance detection schemes fail due to a lack of spin polarization. In this thesis, this effect was utilized for two effects. Firstly, for the exploration of a magnetic resonance regime where the driving field B 1 approaches the same magnitude as the static magnetic field B0. When Bi approaches B0, a regime where magnetic resonance effects become nonlinear emerges and interesting collective spin-phenomena occur. This includes spin-cooperativity, where the resonantlydriven spin ensemble assumes a macroscopically collective state. Experiments are presented that tested and confirmed previous theoretical predictions. When B}~B0, the emerging spin-cooperativity of recombining polaron pairs in organic semiconductors can be observed through magnetoresistance measurements. The experiments confirmed the theory in all aspects and demonstrated the emergence of the spin-Dicke effect. Secondly, for the exploration of whether magnetic resonantly-controlled spindependent currents can be used for magnetometry of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This work is a continuation of the previously introduced idea to utilize spin-dependent charge carrier recombination in organic semiconductors for an absolute low-magnetic field magnetometry that is robust against fluctuating environmental conditions. The work focuses on the measurement of magnetic field distributions in gradient magnetic fields. It is shown that organic semiconductor-based magnetic resonance magnetometers can reveal magnetic field distributions. However, this measurement approach can be compromised by inductive resonance artifacts introduced by the large-bandwidth RF stripline resonators needed to operate the magnetometer.

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rabi **oscillations**

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Microelectromechanical gyroscopes are readily used in cars and cell phones. Tactical gyroscopes are available inexpensively and they offer 0.01 to 0.1 % scale factor inaccuracy. On the other hand, strategic gyroscopes with much better performance levels are 100,000 times more expensive. The main objective of this work is to explore the possibility of developing inexpensive strategic grade gyroscopes using microelectromechanical systems technology. Most of the available gyroscopes are surface micromachined due to fabrication issues and misalignment problems involved in multistep fabrication processes necessary to use the bulk of the wafer as the proofmass in MEMS gyroscopes. It can be shown that the sensitivity of the gyroscope is inversely proportional to the natural **frequency**; so if bulk micromachining technique is used it is possible to decrease the natural **frequency** further than current limits of surface micromachining in order to increase sensitivity. This thesis is focused on proposing a way to use bulk of the silicon wafer in the gyroscope to decrease the natural **frequency** to very low levels, such as sub-KHz regime, that cannot be achieved by single mask surface micromachining processes. It then proposes a solution for solving the misalignment problems caused by using multiple fabrication steps and masks instead of using only one mask in surface micromachined gyroscopes. In our design discrete proofmasses are linked together around a circle by compliant structures to ensure the highest effective mass and lowest effective spring constant. By using a proposed double sided fabrication technology the effect of misalignments on **frequency** mismatch can be reduced. ANSYS software simulations show that 20 Âµm misalignment between the masks causes a **frequency** shift equal to 0.3% of the natural **frequency** that can be compensated using electrostatic **frequency** tuning. Acceleration parasitic effects can also be a major problem in a low natural **frequency** gyroscope. In our design a multiple sensing electrode configuration is used that cancels the acceleration effects completely. The sensitivity of the gyroscope with 3126 Hz natural **frequency** is simulated to be 574 mV/(deg/sec) , or about four times higher than 132 mV/(deg/sec) , which was used as a benchmark for a sensitive gyroscope.

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Rabi **Oscillations**

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The main objectives of this study were to identify the leading propagating patterns of atmospheric variability over the Midwest, and to determine the relationships of these patterns with Midwest precipitation. Complex Hilbert empirical orthogonal function (HEOF) analysis was performed on daily mean 850-hPa horizontal moisture transport, 850-hPa temperature advection, jet relative **frequency**, and the difference between 850-hPa and 250-hPa vorticity advection. Atmospheric fields were derived from the 6-hourly NCEP-NCAR reanalysis on a year-round and within-season basis. Additionally, the HEOFs were phase-shifted to maximize the correlation between the real part of the score series and area-weighted power-transformed Midwest precipitation. In the year-round analysis, the leading HEOF of combined jet relative relative **frequency** and 850-hPa horizontal moisture transport captured the seasonal migration of the jet and attendant low-level circulation features. The second HEOF showed high jet relative **frequency** over the Midwest on the upstream side of a trough, and moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico into the Midwest. The leading within-season HEOF of combined jet relative relative **frequency** and 850-hPa horizontal moisture transport showed a similar pattern in winter, spring, and fall. In all seasons, the monthly mean scores of the leading HEOF of combined jet relative relative **frequency** and 850-hPa horizontal moisture transport were better estimates of Midwest precipitation than the Pacific-North American pattern, North Atlantic **Oscillation**, and El Ni˜no-Southern **Oscillation** teleconnection indices. In addition, this study examined the relationship between the leading winter propagating patterns of variability and lake effect precipitation over the Great Lakes region. Here, the leading HEOF of combined jet relative relative **frequency** and 850-hPa horizontal moisture transport was phase-shifted to maximize the correlation between the real part and a lake effect precipitation fraction time series. The phase-shifted HEOF did not resolve the mesoscale features of lake effect snow, but did position the synoptic-scale circulation so that flow developed the expected northerly component over the Great Lakes.

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This thesis presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based complete wireless microsystem for brain interfacing, with very high quality factor and low power consumption. Components of the neuron sensing system include TiW fixed-fixed bridge resonator, MEMS **oscillator** based action-potential-to-RF module, and high-efficiency RF coil link for power and data transmissions. First, TiW fixed-fixed bridge resonator on glass substrate was fabricated and characterized, with resonance **frequency** of 100 - 500 kHz, and a quality factor up to 2,000 inside 10 mT vacuum. The effect of surface conditions on resonator's quality factor was studied with 10s of nm Al2O3 layer deposition with ALD (atomic layer deposition). It was found that MEMS resonator's quality factor decreased with increasing surface roughness. Second, action-potential-to-RF module was realized with MEMS **oscillator** based on TiW bridge resonator. **Oscillation** signal with **frequency** of 442 kHz and phase noise of -84.75 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset was obtained. DC biasing of the MEMS **oscillator** was modulated with neural signal so that the output RF waveform carries the neural signal information. Third, high-efficiency RF coil link for power and data communications was designed and realized. Based on the coupled mode theory (CMT), intermediate resonance coil was introduced and increased voltage transfer efficiency by up to 5 times. Finally, a complete neural interfacing system was demonstrated with board-level integration. The system consists of both internal and external systems, with wireless powering, wireless data transfer, artificial neuron signal generation, neural signal modulation and demodulation, and computer interface displaying restored neuron signal.

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TSPC **frequency** divider

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As hypersonic aerospace vehicles are designed to increased performance specifications utilizing lighter weight, higher strength materials, fluid-structural interaction (FSI) effects become increasingly important to model, especially considering the increasing use of numerical models in many phases of design. When a fluid flows over a solid, a force is imparted on the solid and the solid deforms. This deformation, in turn, causes a change in the fluid flow field which modifies the force distribution on the structure. This FSI induced deformation is a primary area of study within the field of aeroelasticity. To further complicate the matter, thermodynamic and chemical effects are vitally important to model in the hypersonic flow regime. Traditionally, two separate numerical models are utilized to model the fluid and solid phases and a coupling algorithm accomplishes the task of modeling FSI. Coupling between the two solvers introduces numerical inaccuracies, inefficiencies, and for many mesh-based solvers, large deformations cannot be modeled. For this research, a combined Eulerian grid-based and Lagrangian particle-based solver known as the Material Point Method (MPM) is introduced and defined from prior research by others, and the particular MPM numerical code utilized in this research is outlined. The code combines the two separate solvers into a single numerical algorithm with separate constitutive relations for the fluid and solid phase, thereby allowing FSI modeling within a single computational framework. A limiter is applied to reduce numerical noise and **oscillations** around shock and expansion waves and exhibits a large reduction in **oscillation** amplitude and **frequency**. A Fourier's Law of Conduction heat transfer algorithm is implemented for heat transfer at a fluid-structure interface. The results from this heat transfer algorithm are compared with an independently developed numerical code for the single ramp case and experimental data for the double cone case. Finally, a reacting flow model is exhibited, the results are compared to other numerical solutions for verification and recommendations are made for further research.

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