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The bibliography of Lanthanotus is a chronological listing of published references of substance to Lanthanotus as of June 2018. I have not included citations that are extremely peripheral (e.g., a book that includes a sentence such as “This feature is found only in some varanids and the earless monitor,” and no other comment on the species). The bibliography is arranged chronologically in order to provide a thorough history of the published knowledge on Lanthanotus. Each citation is followed by annotations of the content of that publication. Where possible, each annotation includes when and how many specimens were acquired, which specimens were used for the study, and when research trends in took occurred.
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Until recently, only two haemaphysaline species, Haemaphysalischordeilis (Packard, 1869) and Haemaphysalisleporispalustris (Packard, 1869), were known to occur in the United States, and neither was considered to be of significant medical or veterinary importance. In 2017 2018 established populations of the Asian longhorned tick, Haemaphysalislongicornis Neumann, 1901, were detected in the eastern US for the first time. Haemaphysalislongicornis has the potential to be a significant threat to human and animal health, and the urgent need to determine the full extent of its distribution and host range requires availability of a straightforward and practical guide to differentiate it from native species. We created a pictorial dichotomous key to all stages of Haemaphysalis spp. known to occur in North America with scanning electron photomicrographs of all H.longicornis life stages, including rarely seen males, to aid researchers in differentiating these species. The largely Neotropical species Haemaphysalisjuxtakochi Cooley, 1946, with established populations in Mexico and sporadic detections in the US on migrating birds is also included.
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NMNH
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NMNH
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The Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae: Cryptotis Pomel, 1848) is a clade of semifossorially adapted species discontinuously distributed in moist highlands from central Mexico to western Panama. Inspection of a recent collection of small mammals resulting from field work in Guatemala provided the impetus for a re-evaluation of one member of that group, Goodwin's small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933. On the basis of the results of that study, three new species of small-eared shrews are described from (1) disturbed cloud forest on Cerro Cucurucho, Sacatepéquez Department, Guatemala; (2) highlands east of Mataquescuintla, Jalapa Department, Guatemala; and (3) Cerro Montecristo, a massif at the mutual borders of northern El Salvador, eastern Guatemala, and western Honduras. The new species are most similar morphologically to the Guatemalan endemic species C. goodwini and C. mam Woodman, 2010, from which they are distinguished by a variety of external and cranial characters. Recognition of the three new species more narrowly defines the distribution of C. goodwini (sensu stricto), which is now known only from portions of the western Sierra Madre of Guatemala.
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The clade comprising the soricid tribes Blarinellini (Blarinella) and Blarinini (Blarina and Cryptotis) is notable within the Soricidae (Eulipotyphla) for the large proportion of reportedly semifossorial species. To better define locomotor modes among species in these two tribes, we quantified purported locomotor adaptations by calculating 23 functional indices from postcranial measurements obtained from museum specimens of Blarina and Blarinella and published measurements for 16 species of Cryptotis. We then analyzed relative ambulatory fossorial function of each species using principal component analyses and mean percentile rank (MPR) analysis of the indices. Species within the Blarinellini Blarinini clade exhibit a graded series of morphologies with four primary functional groupings that we classified as "ambulatory," "intermediate," "semifossorial," and "fossorial." To obtain a preliminary overview of evolution of locomotor modes in this group, we mapped MPRs on a composite phylogeny and examined the resulting patterns. That analysis revealed that the most recent common ancestor of the Blarinellini Blarinini clade most likely had an intermediate or semifossorial locomotor morphology. Individual subclades subsequently evolved either more ambulatory or more fossorial morphologies. Hence, evolution of locomotor traits within this clade is complex. Multiple shifts in locomotor mode likely occurred, and no single directional tendency is apparent either among the major modes or in levels of complexity.
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SI-Libraries
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Collective integration and processing of information have increased through the history of life, through both the formation of aggregates in which the entities may have very different properties and which jointly coarse-grained environmental variables (ranging from widely varying metabolism in microbial consortia to the ecological diversity of species on reefs) and through collectives of similar entities (such as cells within an organism or social groups). Such increases have been implicated in significant transitions in the history of life, including aspects of the origin of life, the generation of pangenomes among microbes and microbial communities such as stromatolites, multicellularity and social insects. This contribution provides a preliminary overview of the dominant modes of collective information processing in the history of life, their phylogenetic distribution and extent of convergence, and the effects of new modes for integrating and acting upon information on the tempo of evolutionary change.
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Finding balance between the needs of people and wildlife is an essential component of planning sustainable landscapes. Because mammals make up a diverse and ecologically important taxon with varying responses to human disturbance, we used representative mammal species to examine how alternative land-use policies might affect their habitats and distributions in the near future. We used wildlife detections from camera traps at 1591 locations along a large-scale urban to wild gradient in northern Virginia, to create occupancy models which determined land cover relationships and the drivers of contemporary mammal distributions. From the 15 species detected, we classified five representative species into two groups based on their responses to human development; sensitive species (American black bears and bobcats) and synanthropic species (red foxes, domestic cats, and white-tailed deer). We then used the habitat models for the representative species to predict their distributions under four future planning scenarios based on strategic versus reactive planning and high or low human population growth. The distributions of sensitive species did not shrink drastically under any scenario, whereas the distributions of synanthropic species increased in response to anthropogenic development, but the magnitude of the response varied based on the projected rate of human population growth. This is likely because most sensitive species are dependent on large, protected public lands in the region, and the majority of projected habitat losses should occur in non-protected private lands. These findings illustrate the importance of public protected lands in mitigating range loss due to land use changes, and the potential positive impact of strategic planning in further mitigating mammalian diversity loss in private lands.
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