When coordinating their actions to accomplish a mission, the agents in a multi-agent system may use a collaboration algorithm to determine which agent performs which task. This paper describes a novel data-driven metareasoning approach that generates a metareasoning policy that the agents can use whenever they must collaborate to assign tasks. This metareasoning approach collects data about the performance of the algorithms at many decision points and uses this data to train a set of surrogate models that can estimate the expected performance of different algorithms. This yields a metareasoning policy that, based on the current state of the system, estimated the algorithms’ expected performance and chose the best one. For a ship protection scenario, computational results show that one version of the metareasoning policy performed as well as the best component algorithm but required less computational effort. The proposed data-driven metareasoning approach could be a promising tool for developing policies to control multi-agent autonomous systems.
Since their inception in the health sciences field, systematic reviews have expanded into many other sub-ject disciplines. To address this growing need, subject librarians at the University of Maryland Libraries collaborated on a pilot program in three phases to introduce researchers to the process of conducting sys-tematic and scoping reviews. This article describes the design and development of a workshop series based on participant feedback. Assessment and evaluation techniques are shared to encourage further refinement of the systematic review service.
Slides from a 4-hour workshop on the Beta RDA Toolkit, combining short presentations and hands-on exercises to help build an understanding of the new RDA Toolkit's structure, navigation basics, and new concepts. Concluded with an opportunity for attendees to practice these concepts in RIMMF4 (RDA in Many Metadata Formats, version 4) using select examples of scores and recordings. Given as a preconference for the 2020 Music Library Association Annual Meeting.,Presentation on the Beta RDA Toolkit's structure, navigation basics, and new concepts; includes examples and exercises.,
Contributors:White, Kellee, Lawrence, Jourdyn A., Tchangalova, Nedelina, Huang, Shuo J., Cummings, Jason L.
Self-identified race/ethnicity is largely used to identify, monitor, and examine racial/ethnic inequalities. A growing body of work underscores the need to consider multiple dimensions of race – the social construction of race as a function of appearance, societal interactions, institutional dynamics, stereotypes, and social norms. One such multidimensional measure is socially-assigned race, the perception of one’s race by others, that may serve as the basis for differential or unfair treatment and subsequently lead to deleterious health outcomes. We conducted a scoping review to systematically appraise the socially-assigned race and health literature. A systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, 28 EBSCO databases and 24 Proquest databases up to September 2019 was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of reference lists and grey literature. Quantitative and qualitative studies that examined socially-assigned race and health or health-related outcomes were considered for inclusion. Eighteen articles were included in the narrative synthesis. Self-rated health and mental health were among the most frequent outcomes studied. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States, with fewer studies conducted in New Zealand, Canada, and Latin America. While most studies demonstrate a positive association between social assignment as a disadvantaged racial or ethnic group and poorer health, some studies did not document an association. We describe key conceptual and methodological considerations that should be prioritized in future studies examining socially-assigned race and health. Socially-assigned race can provide additional insight into observed differential health outcomes among racial/ethnic groups in racialized societies based upon their lived experiences. Studies incorporating socially-assigned race warrants further investigation and may be leveraged to examine nuanced patterns of racial health advantage and disadvantage.
Children are present in many types of libraries—not just the public variety. The expense and difficulties of arranging childcare mean that even academic library patrons often need to bring young ones along when studying or browsing the stacks. Now, through the creation of a family study space and other amenities, the University of Maryland Libraries has made it easier for parents, caregivers, and children to visit.
For the University of Maryland Libraries, a major outsourcing initiative began in late 2011 following an earlier implementation of WorldCat Local as a discovery tool: the transitioning from MARC record set loads of electronic resources collections into the local catalog to e-resource collection activations in the WorldCat knowledge base ending with the adoption of WorldCat Discovery and link resolver in July 2015, resulting in a highly automated and outsourced environment. During this time, e-resource cataloging processes shifted as the responsible units underwent a hand-full of reorganizations resulting in, as of April 2017, the formation of four units within Collections Services (formerly known as Technical Services): Acquisitions and Data Services, Continuing Resources and Database Management, Discovery and Metadata Services, and Original and Special Collections Cataloging. This latter reorganization brought relief with the creation of a new Discovery Librarian position. During these transitions, e-resource maintenance remained a constant challenge for personnel across unit lines. We have found, however, that with new skills brought by the Discovery Librarian such as programming and data-manipulation added to old-fashioned competencies, such as communication skills, institutional memory, and a good sense of humor, the challenges have become manageable, and may even offer new opportunities.
Online communities provide important functions in their participants’ lives, from providing spaces to discuss topics of interest to supporting the development of close, personal relationships. Volunteer moderators play key roles in maintaining these spaces, such as creating and enforcing rules and modeling normative behavior. While these users play important governance roles in online spaces, less is known about how the work they do is impacted by platform design and culture. r/AskHistorians, a Reddit-based question and answer forum dedicated to providing users with academic-level answers to questions about history provides an interesting case study on the impact of design and culture because of its unique rules and their strict enforcement by moderators. In this article I use interviews with r/AskHistorians moderators and community members, observation, and the full comment log of a highly upvoted thread to describe the impact of Reddit’s design and culture on moderation work. Results show that visible moderation work that is often interpreted as censorship, and the default masculine whiteness of Reddit, create challenges for moderators who use the subreddit as a public history site. Nonetheless, r/AskHistorians moderators have carved a space on Reddit where, through their public scholarship work, the community serves as a model for combating misinformation by building trust in academic processes.
What Black Barbers and Stylists Say to Scientists: No Research on Us Without Us An Innovation Design Studio on Biomedical Clinical Trials and the Role of Black Barbershops and Salons in Recruitment and Retention of African Americans
Final report for a sponsored research project.,The book industry is an important social, cultural, and economic institution whose records deserve to be preserved for the public good. Books.Files was an exploratory project funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation aimed at assessing the archival value of digital assets in the contemporary publishing industry for stakeholders in the cultural heritage sector (libraries, archives, and academia) as well as in the industry itself. The report addresses the changing technological and organizational circumstances in the creation and collecting of publishers' archives, with an emphasis on the enumeration of the types and variety of digital assets that may form the primary basis for such archives in the future. It emphasizes the extent to which every book published (not just ebooks as such) is in fact "born-digital," and the implications of this shift for future historical and bibliographical scholarship. It concludes with a set of recommendations.,
The effects of nutrient loading on estuaries are well-studied, given the multitude of negative water quality, ecosystem, and economic impacts that have been attributed to the presence of excess nitrogen and phosphorous. A current gap in this knowledge is the consequence of changing climate variability on the seasonal patterns of estuarine processes related to eutrophication, potentially from direct (temperature) and indirect influences (nutrient load timing) of climate warming. A coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical model (ROMS-RCA) was used to investigate the spatial and temporal changes in the phenology of hypoxia and related biogeochemical processes in the Chesapeake Bay under three different hydrologic regimes. Shifts in nutrient load timing during idealized simulations dampened the overall annual hypoxic volume, resulting from discernable, but relatively small reductions in phytoplankton biomass and both sediment and water-column respiration in three regions of the Bay. Simulated increases in water temperature caused an increase in the spring/early summer hypoxic volume associated with elevated respirations rates, but this exhaustion of organic matter in the early summer caused a decrease in late summer/fall hypoxic volume due to lowered sediment respiration. Similar simulations in nutrient load timing were conducted using a model of the Chester River estuary, a smaller, shallower sub-estuary system to the Chesapeake Bay. Nutrient load timing and magnitude effects on hypoxia were much smaller in the Chester River as compared to Chesapeake Bay, which is likely due to high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus within the system. Therefore, cross-system comparisons are important for understanding the sensitivity of hypoxia to alterations in nutrient load across diverse estuaries. These idealized simulations begin the process of understanding the potential impacts of future climatic changes in the seasonal timing of key biogeochemical processes associated with eutrophication.