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The U.S. Department of State deploys hundreds of American diplomats into embassies abroad. With temporary posts, diplomats and their families are transplanted into unfamiliar, foreign contexts. While protecting Americans abroad, this mobile and dynamic population attempts to find stability and security in a temporary environment. This thesis examines the crossroads of culture and architecture through the implementation of a new United States embassy in Algiers, Algeria. As diplomats and locals attempt to absorb one another’s culture, they can face a sense of displacement. U.S. embassies can expand from a purely political context to one that creates community between Americans and Algerians. It explores the built environment’s role in mitigating physical and social displacement and maintaining security. With globalization, preserving identity while blurring the boundaries between cultures becomes a challenge. By integrating community, foreign policy and security, architecture can create a platform for cultural assimilation resulting in a truly global society.
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The acceleration of economic growth over the past few decades introduces the need to reorient policy to address the needs and challenges for a healthier population. This paper will review the effectiveness of national nutrition policies targeting overweight, healthy diets during pregnancy, infancy and childhood, and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across advanced economies and transitional economies. The level of expansion and industrialization of food systems around the world have had a direct impact on nutritional status and health. Considering the magnitude of nationwide public health responses to shifts in mortality have varied over time, this introduces the need to assess the ability for dietary-related policies to successfully reduce NCDs. Results from this analysis can provide a strong rationale as to when interventions will be most effective as well as ways in which we can carry out a timely response in establishing effective policies for countries at different levels of economic development.
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This literary biography locates the life and work of Henry Dumas – one of the most unique and under-studied writers of the Black Arts Movement – as a radical, revolutionary nexus of Afrosurrealist thought. Afrosurrealism, a term popularized by scholar D. Scot Miller, is a genre of Black American writing wherein Black artists mobilize the aesthetic techniques of surrealism to express the particular experience of being Black in America. Through his “skill at creating an entirely different world organically connected to this one,” to quote Amiri Baraka, Henry Dumas serves as a vital connecting point between the previous era of Black surrealism and our current Afrosurreal Renaissance. Thus, this literary and critical biography advances a twofold goal: to grant Dumas his rightful place as a central figure in African American literary history, and to recognize the expansive and important scope of the modern Afrosurrealist tradition.
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This chapter outlines an international collaboration model for a digitization project between an American academic library and Japanese national library. University of Maryland Libraries (UMD) partner with the National Diet Library of Japan (NDL), the Japanese equivalent of the Library of Congress. They collectively pursue a bilateral digitization initiative, “Book Reformatting Project,” which aims to preserve and create digital access to the materials held by the Gordon W. Prange Collection. Prange Collection is one of UMD’s premier special collections, which comprehensively archives Japanese-language print publications issued for the first four years of the Allied Occupation of Japan, 1945-1949.
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Process parameter spatial inhomogeneities inside cell culture bioreactors has attracted considerable attention, however, few technologies allow investigation of the impact of these variations on process yield. Commercially available sensing probes sit at fixed locations, failing to capture the spatial distribution of process metrics. The bio-Processing online device (bPod) addresses this problem by performing real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) within bioreactor cell cultures. The bPod is an integrated system comprised of a potentiostat analog-front-end, a Bluetooth Low Energy microcontroller, and a Clark-type electrochemical DO sensor. The Clark-type sensor uses chronoamperometry to determine the DO percent saturation within a range relevant for mammalian cell culture. The free-floating capsule is packaged inside a 3D-printed biocompatible shell and wirelessly transmits data to a smartphone while submerged in the reactor. Furthermore, the bPod demonstrated a sensitivity of 37.5 nA/DO%, and can be adapted to multiple sensor types, enabling numerous bioprocess monitoring applications.
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The smoldering and ignition of upholstered furniture is the leading cause of loss of life in accidental residential fires. Due to these fatal incidents, a new smoldering apparatus experimental setup was designed and built to investigate the temperature profile, the gaseous products, and the probability of transition from smoldering-to-flaming in polyurethane foam based upholstered furniture when subjected to a high intensity cartridge heater representative of a cigarette. The measurement locations in which the gaseous products and the temperatures from smoldering combustion were determined (2.5 – 22.5 cm above the heater) and the materials that made up each upholstered furniture assembly (cotton and polyester fabrics and battings with both fire retardant or non-fire retardant polyurethane foams) were both varied during the tests to investigate the specific gaseous quantities compared with temperature readings as a smolder front propagates and how varying materials affect the transition from smoldering-to-flaming, respectively. On average, the rate in which the smolder front propagates near the end of the test is 2 times faster than the rate at the start of the test. All tests performed produced large amounts of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide, which is representative of 95% of the Oxygen that was consumed. During the moments directly before the sample transitions from smoldering-to-flaming, there is a noticeable increase in Oxygen consumption as the distance from the heater increases past the smolder front and into the Oxygen limited pyrolysis zone. The anaerobic pyrolysis zone produces the combustible fuels required for transition, and once a substantial amount of combustible fuel is produced, the high temperature smoldering reaction ignites the fuel. In varying the materials used in each upholstered assembly, it was confirmed that the probability of transition increased substantially with the use of cotton fabric and cotton batting, while the use of polyester fabric and polyester batting greatly reduced the probability of transition. The presence of fire retardants in fabrics and polyurethane foam can greatly reduce (or even eliminate) the probability of transition, but when paired with cotton batting, higher levels of fire retardants (BS 5852 rated) were required.
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Heart rate variability (HRV), calculated from the cardiac intervals of electrocardiogram (ECG), is a promising marker of the cardiovascular system status and fitness. However, ECG signal is not always available and photoplethysmogram (PPG) is easier to obtain, and more widely used in clinical is running HRV analysis on pulse-to-pulse intervals of PPG signal, which is usually referred to as pulse rate variability (PRV). Thus, whether PRV can be used as a substitution of HRV is of substantial interest to researchers. In this thesis, two issues about PRV are discussed. The first issue is the selection of characteristic point, which determines the length and location of the pulse-to-pulse interval and will affect the agreement between PRV and HRV. Six characteristic points of PPG pulse are extracted and the agreement between HRV and corresponding PRV is calculated and compared, in two situations, subjects with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and subjects without cardiovascular diseases (non-CVD). The result indicates that pulse peak is most suitable for CVD subjects, and 50% max amplitude point and 75% max amplitude point on pulse slope are most suitable for non-CVD subjects. The second issue studied in this thesis is the PRV refinement using arterial blood pressure (ABP) information. The relationship between systolic blood pressure extracted from ABP signal and pulse transit time (PTT) is modeled using linear kernel support vector regression (SVR) and RBF kernel SVR, respectively. Estimated PTT is used to adjust the location of PPG pulse-to-pulse intervals. PRV after adjustment is calculated, and its agreement to HRV is compared with the original PRV. For CVD subjects, the improvement to the agreement is limited, and only the agreement for variables representing long-term variability is improved. For non-CVD subjects, there is a relatively large improvement for approximately all variables after refinement and linear kernel outperforms RBF kernel in this situation.
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The Family Sadness is a novel-in-progress that spans four generations of women in one Eastern European Jewish family and engages the idea of a speculative queer lineage. The story zigzags geographically and temporally, moving from Poland in the 1920’s to Brooklyn in the 1950’s, to Maryland in the 1980’s, and finally to contemporary Warsaw. The characters communicate across space and time, and their stories are woven through a body of invented Jewish folklore that collages age-old Jewish folk tropes with a contemporary queer sensibility. The narration of this book is polyphonic – humans and other creatures, animate and inanimate, contemporaries and time-travelers all participate in building this universe. Shiva, the youngest in this lineage, travels to Warsaw amidst ancestral refractions. This is, in part, a story about how stories are made. About how what feels impossible is sometimes truest, and about what is visible when we start to pay attention.
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More Level is an exhibition of sculptures in The University of Maryland Art Gallery. The three sculptural works explore ideas in form, craft, space, and time. In the following, I describe my processes, personal experiences and thought patterns as I create art. I also provide descriptions of the work in the show.
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The Wolf Creek Dam situated on the Cumberland River in the state of Kentucky, United States is a multipurpose dam generating hydroelectricity, providing flood risk reduction, supporting year-round navigation on the lower Cumberland River, and it creating Lake Cumberland for recreation and water supply. The latter is a popular tourist attraction. Because of piping and internal erosion problems in the dam's foundation, it is a USACE top-priority structure. This thesis experiments with and tests the applicability of a stochastic simulation of the dam using historical inflow data based on a model built on GoldSim™. The model uses standard operating rules of the Dam to spot possible failures to the turbines that could affect the performance of the dam. In addition, the model simulates the behavior of the dam 50 years in to the future during which time the components reach their close to their maximum life. Results of the study suggest that simulation models of this type may serve to provide information for reliability-based maintenance strategies, and to help identify adverse patterns of dam performance which may be addressed through asset management.
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