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  • Figure 3. Terrace Surfaces in Wells Reservoir Area (Adapted from Chatters 1986: 46-47). Rorabaugh, Adam N. 2020 A Critical Reassessment of the Chronology of the Wells Dam Project Area: 9,000 Years of Continuity on the Upper-Middle Columbia River. In Of Housepits and Homes: Of Housepits and Homes: 21st Century Perspectives on Houses and Settlements in the Columbia-Fraser Plateau Past. Edited by Molly Carney, James W. Brown, and Dakota E. Wallen, pp. Journal of Northwest Anthropology Memoir 20, Richland, WA.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Teacher instructions and overview for the K-3 lesson. This document outlines the lesson and walks teachers through the steps, learning objectives, and materials needed. This is designed to pair with other educational lessons developed as part of the National Endowment for the Humanities two-year grant (2018-2019) entitled “From Library to Laboratory: Developing Tools to Enhance the Use of Digital Archaeological and Other Humanities Collections.”
    Data Types:
    • Document
  • Figure 1. Map of the greater North American Northwest, with the Columbia-Plateau region shaded in grey. Numbers correspond with chapters and indicate approximate locations of case studies within the volume. 3. Gingko State Park Project, WA; Johnson, Lubinski, and Hackenberger 4. Lower John Day River, OR; Endzweig 5. Central Columbia Plateau, BC, ID, OR, & WA; Carney 6. Upper and Middle Columbia River, WA; Brown and Hackenberger 7. Wells Dam Reservoir, WA; Rorabaugh 8. Clearwater River, ID; Sappington 9. Kwoiek Creek, BC; Lyons et al. 10. Bridge River, BC; Hampton and Prentiss 11. Cougar Overlook, Hells Canyon, ID; Reid and Kvamme. Carney, Molly, James W. Brown, and Dakota E. Wallen 2020 House, Homes, and Dwellings of the Columbia Fraser Plateau: An Introduction. In Of Housepits and Homes: Of Housepits and Homes: 21st Century Perspectives on Houses and Settlements in the Columbia-Fraser Plateau Past. Edited by Molly Carney, James W. Brown, and Dakota E. Wallen, pp. Journal of Northwest Anthropology Memoir 20, Richland, WA.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Supplemental reading for the grades 4-12 lesson. This document provides a broad history of the Mimbres region and archaeology needed to understand the lesson. This is designed to pair with other educational lessons developed as part of the National Endowment for the Humanities two-year grant (2018-2019) entitled “From Library to Laboratory: Developing Tools to Enhance the Use of Digital Archaeological and Other Humanities Collections.”
    Data Types:
    • Document
  • The Mimbres Pottery Images Digital Database (MimPIDD) is a collection of images and data on more than 10,000 Mimbres pottery vessels. MimPIDD digital images illustrate the painted designs on each vessel, along with associated descriptive information about archaeological context, temporal style, and vessel form and size. This document provides additional background to MIMPIDD, describes how data are coded in the database, and guides the effective and ethical use of MIMPIDD. The information in the guide is applicable for the online search function, the public database, as well as the downloadable database accessible by permission only.
    Data Types:
    • Document
  • Final Archaeological Assessment, Context Sheets and associated documentation
    Data Types:
    • Document
  • Archaeologists, as well as petroglyph and pictograph researchers more specifically, have striven for years to develop scientific means for dating petroglyphs, through both direct and indirect methods. For years, the conventional wisdom has been that the older a petroglyph is, the darker it will appear because of the constant process of varnish formation that occurs on rocks in arid environments. This study focused on analyzing varnish formation on both dated inscriptions and undated precolumbian petroglyphs to see if a relative dating chronology could be created based on varnish darkness. I studied petroglyphs at three sites in southern Arizona because they had a number of dated inscriptions that showed potential for analysis alongside many more ancient inscriptions. Three methods of analysis were used. First, digital photographs of both dated and undated inscriptions were color corrected to the standard International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) color card in PhotoShop and then analyzed for red-green-blue means (RGB) on selected sites of an area of 36 pixels. Second, a Sekonic light meter was used to measure both ambient light striking the petroglyphs and reflected light from the grooves of the inscriptions and these were averaged to obtain a reflectance (R) ratio. Third, a HunterLab spectrophotometer was used to measure reflected light from an internal UV light source and the result analyzed for a light (L*) value where zero was black and 100 was white. The results from the analysis of 79 images (both ancient and modern) contributes to and validates the previous work by Brazeau (2007), Whitley et al. (1984) and Wright (2011) that showed that varnish color can be accurately measured by modern tools. Older precolumbian petroglyphs are darker on average than more recent date inscriptions, and this can be demonstrated through scientific research on varnish color. However, it was not possible to accurately discern differences in varnish color on just the historically dated inscriptions. The time frame is too short to provide reliable, consistent readings. More research is needed in the future, perhaps using different color cards, using different software programs for color analysis, and utilizing more sensitive instruments that can measure very narrow grooves in both dated and undated inscriptions in order to analyze larger data sets. There is still much to learn about rock varnish and its formation and process of growth.
    Data Types:
    • Document
  • Student worksheet and instructions for the K-3 lesson. This worksheet is the main document students need to complete the lesson. It included images for analysis and prompt questions. This is designed to pair with other educational lessons developed as part of the National Endowment for the Humanities two-year grant (2018-2019) entitled “From Library to Laboratory: Developing Tools to Enhance the Use of Digital Archaeological and Other Humanities Collections.”
    Data Types:
    • Document
  • The New Mexico Bureau of Land Management Roswell Field Office contracted PaleoWest Archaeology to conduct a cultural resources inventory of an archaeologically relevant portion of Fort Stanton Cave in Lincoln County, New Mexico. Thirty previously identified loci containing historic carvings, inscriptions, and other cave surface modifications were documented. Evidence of prehistoric use, historic materials, a new inscription panel, and a masonry wall/entry were also recorded. A cursory analysis indicates that the frequency of distinguishable surface modifications on cave walls increased from the middle of the nineteenth century until the second decade of the twentieth century, when dated cave surface modifications decline. LA195070, Fort Stanton Cave, is historically important to the local region, the state of New Mexico, and our nation. The site is recommended eligible for the National Register Historic Places under Criteria A, B, and D.
    Data Types:
    • Document
  • Student workbook for grades 4-12 lesson. This document outlines the lesson and walks students through the steps of a simple attribute analysis and coding of prehistoric pots. There are three workbooks each containing data from one site. All three are designed to be used in tandem for this lesson. This is designed to pair with other educational lessons developed as part of the National Endowment for the Humanities two-year grant (2018-2019) entitled “From Library to Laboratory: Developing Tools to Enhance the Use of Digital Archaeological and Other Humanities Collections.”
    Data Types:
    • Document