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  • Improvements in maximal strength may reduce injury risk and improve occupational performance. Women’s naturally lower muscular strength compared to men, can be offset through resistance training (RT), but research into its implementation has been limited. Therefore, the time-course of muscular adaptations is of interest, with evidence suggesting adaptations in size and strength are detectable as early as 3-4 weeks, concomitant with an attenuation of RT induced muscle damage. This evidence offers a reduction in the time commitment of RT that may enhance readiness for physically demanding activity, but functional adaptations have yet to be explored. The purpose of this thesis is to explore measurement techniques, moderators of baseline variation and responses to unaccustomed heavy-load RT in civilian women representative of individuals entering physically demanding occupations. Specifically, high reliability and acceptable validity as a measure of maximal strength was established for the isometric mid-thigh pull, now a UK Armed Forces entrance test, in non-athlete females. Next, the influence of physical characteristics, previous sporting activity, and single nucleotide polymorphisms on variation in strength was assessed. The ongoing final study aims to assess the efficacy of a 4-week heavy compound RT program on improving performance and biochemical adaptations.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • The UK government announced its intention to purchase aircraft carriers in July 1998 and in December 2017 the first of the two ships were delivered to the Royal Navy. Newspaper reports on the procurement of the Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers have varied in their sentiment over the two decades- sometimes expressing positive, congratulatory emotions of pride and joy and at other times expressing criticism, anger, and despair at project management and outcomes. The image is a normalized plot of sentiment scores associated with 2,688 articles published in eleven British newspapers (broadsheets and tabloids) between 1998 and 2018, where sentiment scores have been calculated using the sentimentr package in R. This research method allows viewing project history at a glance, identifying and investigating critical periods of success and failure, accounting for wider public opinion towards public projects, and extracting greater meaning from textual data with speed and consistency.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Autonomous driving has been rapidly evolving for the last few years and there is a lot of fervour in increasing the intelligence of these vehicles. One key aspect of a self-driving car is its ability to sense the environment in order to be aware of its surroundings and consecutively take better decisions. While the right combination of sensors is widely debated, my research interest lies in using computer vision and machine learning techniques to detect, localise and recognise surrounding entities. My talk will describe my research objectives and the expected outcome. It will address some of the encountered challenges, resulting from the urban traffic environment context and my sensor choice. It will include a mention of the algorithms that I have tested so far and those currently in development. You will have a glance at some of the questions that researchers are presently trying to answer in this interdisciplinary field.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Bone is a hierarchical structure that provides support and protection to a body. In the macro-structure of bone, geometry affects it ability to perform these functions, while in the micro-structure the material properties dictate changes. The easy substitution of atoms into the crystal, as well as the binding of extraneous proteins to the surface, have been found to alter many material properties. This research aims to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental properties and behaviours of the mineral component of bone (biological Hydroxyapatite or HA) through several techniques, some that are well documented within the field of research and some that are not. While X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) are often used in the study of HAp, this research aims to expand the lesser-used methods used to include X-Ray PDF Studies with the use of Synchrotron Radiation, as well as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). By building a cohesive model one step at a time we can begin to understand fundamental material characteristics of this fascinating building block of life.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Forensic entomology has become increasingly important in the last decade. In cases of homicide, suicide or suspicious death, insect specimens are taken into consideration as acceptable evidence like blood, fingerprint or any other biological materials. When solving criminal cases, it is essential to determine the time since death or post-mortem interval (PMI). Entomological evidence can provide valuable information about the prediction of the post-mortem interval and where the death occurred. Forensic entomology, like many other fields in forensic sciences, has been developing using new technologies. Cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) analysis has become a useful tool for identifying and ageing forensically important blowfly species. Variation in hydrocarbon profiles is significant for climatic adaptation, protection against dehydration and desiccation. The effect of other variables, such as environmental climate and geographic region, and how this may change the CHC structure is not known. In the literature, there are some studies showing differences in the hydrocarbon structure of beetles, fruit flies and house flies when reared at different temperatures. Although there are many studies on the relationship between temperature effect and development time of blowfly species using classical entomology methods, no studies have been conducted using cuticular hydrocarbon analysis. In this regard, this study has been a first in the field of forensic entomology. In this study, L. sericata collected from the wild were used for oviposition. Once eggs were laid on the oviposition medium, the Petri dish containing the meat was transferred to incubators at 14 ºC, 25 ºC and 34ºC. The cuticular hydrocarbons were chemically extracted and analysed for post-feeding larvae. The effect of temperature changes on the cuticular structure was investigated by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Figshare for institutions is designed to make research data citable, shareable, and discoverable.Cranfield University's institutional data repository is suitable for storing and sharing final datasets from a research project or underpinning published material.● Research outputs will have a DOI assigned. This means you can cite it as a research output alongside your publication or as a freestanding piece of data.● Figshare complies with funder mandates around making data openly accessible and stored for a minimum of 10 years.● Figshare offers a range of access management tools to control how your data will be accessed and re-used● Research outputs uploaded to Figshare are indexed with Google Scholar and Google Dataset Search, improving the discoverability of your research
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the UK, accounting for 31% of all cases. Some breast malignancies, known as in-situ cancers, have the potential to form invasive cancer, but this is not true in all cases. There is significant overtreatment of in-situ cancers, which can be a traumatic process for patients. Therefore, a robust method to determine which of these malignancies will develop into clinically significant invasive cancer is required. Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS), the most common in-situ breast cancer, has associated calcium deposits (microcalcifications) in 80-90% of cases. Microcalcifications are therefore an important diagnostic indicator of DCIS. These microcalcifications are composed of hydroxyapatite, a nano-crystalline calcium phosphate, with the potential for high levels of ion substitution. The crystalline nature of hydroxyapatite permits the use of X-ray diffraction to investigate the microstructure of microcalcifications found in breast tissue. X-ray diffraction patterns can be used to determine properties such as crystallite size, irregularities in the crystal lattice and give indications about the ions present. Together, differences in these parameters may permit the development of a novel prognostic marker for different breast tissue pathologies.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • A great deal of studies on the environmental fate and transport of legacy explosives such as cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoctane (HMX) has been conducted. However, less is known about the behaviour of Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) constituents being brought into military service such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 5-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) in soil and water environmental compartments. Typically fate and transport of explosives are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions. However, experimental data are often limited to a particular soil type under specific climatic conditions (i.e. pH, soil saturation, temperature), which are not always representative of genuine environments. For example, several studies have addressed the dissolution mechanisms of energetic compounds on soil surfaces; many, however, have addressed dissolution of individual IHE without considering formulations with multiple constituents. Such results may have limited applicability for dissolution of residues on soils at impact zones or firing ranges because IHE often contain mixtures of energetic materials e.g. DNAN, RDX, and NTO, as well as small quantities of other chemicals such as stabilisers, which may alter physico-chemical properties compared to the pure compound. Therefore, computational modelling software is increasingly being used as an additional tool to simulate real scenarios. However, models are limited by the quality of the empirical data used to predict the temporal and spatial behaviour e.g. rate of transport of IHE to an aquifer. This is a particular problem for the prediction of the behaviour of IHE in the environment where key experimental data has not been obtained for a wide variety of soils and environments, and whose compounds are frequently investigated in isolation even though they are used in combination in IHE formulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review and assess two predictive models including GoldSim Simulation Software and Hydrus-1D for a representative range of soil-IHE combinations, and to develop a standardised method for the prediction of the behaviour of IHE in the environment. To date the GoldSim simulations have been compared to soil columns under controlled laboratory conditions to estimate the accuracy of the model developed. GoldSim was initially chosen due to its flexibility, which enabled the use of experimentally determined empirical data for specific soil types and IHE constituents. Initial comparisons were undertaken with DNAN and a simple quartz sand medium to determine which empirical data gave the most accurate predictions e.g. soil adsorption coefficient, degradation rates and solubility. The comparisons will be extended to include mixtures of IHE constituents in a variety of soil types e.g. sandy, loamy, and silty under various climatic conditions.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • Improvements in maximal strength may reduce injury risk and improve occupational performance. Women’s naturally lower muscular strength compared to men, can be offset through resistance training (RT), but research into its implementation has been limited. Therefore, the time-course of muscular adaptations is of interest, with evidence suggesting adaptations in size and strength are detectable as early as 3-4 weeks, concomitant with an attenuation of RT induced muscle damage. This evidence offers a reduction in the time commitment of RT that may enhance readiness for physically demanding activity, but functional adaptations have yet to be explored. The purpose of this thesis is to explore measurement techniques, moderators of baseline variation and responses to unaccustomed heavy-load RT in civilian women representative of individuals entering physically demanding occupations. Specifically, high reliability and acceptable validity as a measure of maximal strength was established for the isometric mid-thigh pull, now a UK Armed Forces entrance test, in non-athlete females. Next, the influence of physical characteristics, previous sporting activity, and single nucleotide polymorphisms on variation in strength was assessed. The ongoing final study aims to assess the efficacy of a 4-week heavy compound RT program on improving performance and biochemical adaptations.
    Data Types:
    • Video
  • The UK government announced its intention to purchase aircraft carriers in July 1998 and in December 2017 the first of the two ships were delivered to the Royal Navy. Newspaper reports on the procurement of the Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers have varied in their sentiment over the two decades- sometimes expressing positive, congratulatory emotions of pride and joy and at other times expressing criticism, anger, and despair at project management and outcomes. The image is a normalized plot of sentiment scores associated with 2,688 articles published in eleven British newspapers (broadsheets and tabloids) between 1998 and 2018, where sentiment scores have been calculated using the sentimentr package in R. This research method allows viewing project history at a glance, identifying and investigating critical periods of success and failure, accounting for wider public opinion towards public projects, and extracting greater meaning from textual data with speed and consistency.
    Data Types:
    • Video