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  • Percentages of the 15 more important species and groups of species and Shannon–Wiener H(S) diversity index of the studied samples in the sediment cores. ... Distribution of the identified Biofacies along the studied cores and correlation. ... Boundaries of the biofacies in the six cores ... Fig. 3 represents the correspondence analysis results for the 15 more significant benthic foraminiferal species and group of species of our study. The sum of all eigenvalues obtained from Correspondence Analysis (CA) is 0.83 (Table 3). The A1 axis has eigenvalue λ1 equal to 0.34 of the total dispersion of the species scores on the ordination axis, and the A2 axis has eigenvalue λ2 equal to 0.25. However, cumulative percentage variance of species–sample relations for the two axes reaches 52.87. Therefore it displays statistically relevant information and can be further used for an environmental interpretation. Species showing similar distribution patterns and related to the same environmental conditions are plotted close to each other on the CA graph. The CA plot of species scores shows the high concentration of species in the centre of the ordination diagram. Thus, these species may have their statistical optima there or alternatively may have a very weak correlation with integrated environmental parameters. Species Correspondence Analysis distinguishes the benthic foraminiferal assemblages in four clusters. The frequencies of the taxa belonging to these groups have been summed and plotted for each core (Fig. 4a–f).Table 3Eigenvalues.Value%SimilarityCumulativeEigenval 10.3430.2730.27Eigenval 20.2522.652.87Eigenval 30.1412.3365.2Eigenval 40.19.3874.58Sum0.83... The analysis of fossil sediments is based on 6 gravity cores (EYB: 1, 10, 6, 5, 7, 8) ranging in length from 113 to 255 cm and retrieved by a trawler vessel from the south shelf, slope and basinal setting of the North Evoikos Basin. Details of the cores are reported in Table 1 and depicted in Fig. 2.Table 1Details of the sediment cores: location, depth and lengthCoresLatitudeLongitudeWater depth (m)Length (cm)EYB-1023,39937938,61649581120EYB-123,3691638,63362785113EYB-623,3077738,723095186140EYB-523,28016838,71548258145EYB-723,23828938,74451375255EYB-823,17547238,770684416195... General bathymetry and coring locations in the North Evoikos Gulf. ... Details of the sediment cores: location, depth and length
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  • Rhythmites and laminated facies in the Lake Enol sequence (modified from Moreno et al., 2010). From left to right, sequences include depth, sedimentological units, core photograph, facies, magnetic susceptibility, lightness, bulk density, TIC (Total Inorganic Carbon) and TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and age model. Also shown contour map and location of the sediment cores. ... A classification of Iberian Karstic lakes based on surface hydrology and sediment input. ... Distal facies (laminites and homogeneites) in Lake Banyoles. From left to right, sequence includes depth, sedimentological units, core photograph, facies, Ligthness, TIC (Total Inorganic Carbon) and TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and age model. Also included bathymetric map and location of the sediment cores. ... Clastic dominated littoral facies and massive/graded turbidites in the sedimentary sequence of Lake Taravilla (modified from Moreno et al., 2008). From left to right, sequences include depth, sedimentological units, core photograph, facies, magnetic susceptibility, lightness (core 2A) and also TIC (Total Inorganic Carbon), TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and TOC/TN ratio (core 1A) and age model. Also shown, bathymetric map and location of the sediment cores. ... Distal facies with gypsum-rich sediments (laminites) and littoral facies in Lake Estanya (modified from Morellón et al., 2009a). From left to right, sequence includes depth, sedimentological units, core photograph, facies, magnetic susceptibility, TIC (Total Inorganic Carbon), TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and TOC/TN ratio and mineralogy and age model. Also shown bathymetric maps and location of the sediment cores. ... Late Quaternary
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  • Multicores and jumbo piston cores used for this study, cores are acquired during the PANASH cruise of the R/V Melville cruise in 2004. ... Chronostratigraphic correlation across the Gulf of Papua(vertical scale is core depth in meters below seafloor, gamma density units are g/cm3 and magnetic susceptibility units are SI), from slope through minibasin, toe of slope and Moresby channel. The time lines are interpolated every 10 cal ka based on sediment accumulation rates in the hemipelagic component of the sedimentary succession. Erosional bases to sand beds were interpreted based on log and core observations. The correlation on the upper part of the core (e.g. 10 Ka) also incorporates peak Ca content from XRF scans of cores MV-22, MV25, MV-23 and MV33 (see Fig. 10). ... Basemap of the Gulf of Papua (GoP) (NSF focus area) (after Tcherepanov et al., 2008). Bathymetry and cores were acquired during the R/V Melville cruise 2004. This study is based on seven jumbo piston cores (JPC) (square point) and five multi cores (MC) (round point). Black dashed line indicate the compartment used to calculate sediment budget. For the map clarity, cores are referred to by number only; the proper core name begins with MV (e.g., MV-23). The estimation of Moresby channel location (white dashed line) is based on slope analysis of Patterson (2006) and interpretation of bathymetry of Daniell (2008). ... SARS and sediment budget in deep-sea Gulf of Papua. ... Sediment delivery... Age-depth plots. Accumulation rates are calculated directly from calibrated C-14 age to C-14 age. Core MV-27 curve is derived from d18O data (McFadden, personal communication, 2010) Each core top is assumed to have an age of 0 cal yr BP, but could be older if the sediment–water interface was not recovered in piston cores.
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  • Radiocarbon ages obtained on sediment core CAST01. The ages were calibrated with CLAM 2.2 (Blaauw, 2010), using the calibration curve SHCal13 (Hogg et al., 2013). The 7 ages that were not used for the final age model are indicated with an asterisk. ... Sediment drift... Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of Unit 3 in two overlapping core sections (see Fig. 5 for location in composite core). Left: depth in composite core, corresponding subunits and lithology. Middle: frontal view cut just below the opening surface of the archive half of both sections. Polygonal structures are increasingly overprinting i) the disturbed and layered sediments of Unit 3.2 towards the base and ii) the varves of Unit 3.1 towards the top. Location and viewpoint of 3D renders (a) and (b) are indicated. Right (a, b): 3D renders showing the overprinting polygonal structures in both vertical and horizontal planes. Sediments with a higher X-ray attenuation appear lighter (whiter), while sediments with a lower X-ray attenuation appear darker. ... (a) reflection-seismic (pinger) profile of the upper 15–20 m (cored part) of the sedimentary infill (zoom of Fig. 3). Unit boundaries are indicated with grey dotted lines and sediment-drift features are shown. The vertical scale is only indicative and is based on an acoustic velocity of 1500 m/s. The location and penetration of the sediment core CAST01, as well as the depth of the (sub)units, are projected on the profile. (b) sediment core units, lithology (see Fig. 5 for legend) and density. Average acoustic velocity – that was determined based on the core-to-seismic correlation – increases with depth and density. ... Bathymetry of Lago Castor based on the seismic survey (see Fig. 1). The lake is divided into two subbasins: the main (northeastern) subbasin (NEB), from which the sediment core CAST01 (white circle) was retrieved, and an elongated southwestern subbasin (SWB). In the western part of the NEB, channels can be observed that drain towards the deeper eastern part. In that eastern part of the NEB, as well as in the SWB, the lake floor is deeper at the foot of the slopes than in the center of the subbasin. ... (a) Precipitation record of Laguna Aculeo (Jenny et al., 2003); (b) Nothofagus dombeyi-type pollen from Mallín Pollux (Markgraf et al., 2007); (c) Box-Whisker plots of the drift-intensity parameter for each subunit of Unit 5 (crosses are “outliers”, i.e. 1.5 x the interquartile range below or above Q1 and Q3, respectively); (d) mean of modified sortable silt (i.e. 10–125 μm; SS′); (e) accumulation rate of terrestrial organic carbon at the TM1 fjord site (Lamy et al., 2010). Moving averages are all averaging 5 data points. The Holocene is subdivided in early, middle and late Holocene based on the discussion paper by Walker et al. (2012). The coeval decreasing precipitation – and thus SWW strength – at 53°S and increasing SWW strength at 46°S during the early and middle Holocene, indicates a broadening of the SWWB. Further increasing precipitation at 34° during the late Holocene shows the broadening continued until ∼3 kyr BP. The proxies in this study do not seem to show any change in wind strength related to the ACR or YD chronozones. The high mean SS' (d) between 17 and 16 kyr BP are interpreted as the influence of a thick Ho deposit in the catchment. The drift-intensity values (c) of Unit 5.7 are an overestimation resulting from unconsolidated surface sediments in the mound. This is not visible in the core density (Fig. 5), due to coring compaction of the sediments as a result of gravity coring (Lebel et al., 1982).
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  • Summary of coring locations and sediment recovery from Hole in the Wall Cave and Twin Cave (N/R=not recorded). ... Original cave surveys (top panel, after original by Sheck Exley) denoting core locations, along with idealized cave cross section with core depths (lower panel) from HITW Cave (A) and Twin Cave (B). Black bars denote original sediment column before compression occurred during coring (not recovered length, Table 1). Blue (yellow) circles denote cores that reached (did not reach) bedrock. Note: ‘Sediment bypass’ down Chimney 1 and/or the Skiles Passage likely precluded deposition of organic matter pulses (OMP-1, OMP-2) in TWIN-C5 (see Fig. 4). ... Radiocarbon results on core samples from Hole in the Wall Cave and Twin Cave. ... Lithologic variability (core logs and photographs), bulk organic matter (wt. %), coarse sediment fraction (D>63μm), location of XRD and 14C samples in all of the recovered cores. ... (A) Photographs from HITW-C1 depicting sediment typical of Units 1–6. (B, C) Photographs from TWIN-C5 and TWIN-C1 (respectively) that depict the heterogeneity of Unit 5 sediment. (D) Well-sorted, coarse quartz sand from Unit 6 in TWIN-C2. (E) Poorly sorted, coarse-grained Unit 1 from TWIN-C3. (F) Unit-2B coarse-grained carbonate sand from HITW-C4 that is well-sorted unlike most Unit 2B sediment. (G) Poorly sorted carbonate sand in manganese-rich mud from HITW-C2 that is typical of Unit 4B.
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  • Age–depth model. Calibration and modelling was performed using OxCal 4.1 (Ramsey, 2009) with the IntCal09 data set (Reimer et al., 2009). The modelled age is plotted against depth with linear interpolation between the modelled 2σ-ranges (95.4% probability). The dashed blue line is the linear interpolation from the youngest modelled age to the sediment surface (∼0 BP) from 210Pb dating. Loss-on-ignition (green line) and total organic carbon (red line) were used for tuning the age–depth model of core PG2023 to core PG2022. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Geochemistry of the organic fraction and the water content in sediment core PG2023. ... Water chemistry data of samples from Lake Kyutyunda at various water depths at core site PG2023, measured during field work in summer 2010. Dashed green lines lead to measurements of the surface water taken before coring; dashed red lines lead to measurements taken after core retrieval. Laboratory results of anions and cations measured in 2012 are given as average values in the table. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... A. Location of Lake Kyutyunda in north-eastern Siberia (Sakha Republic, Yakutia), Russia. Vegetation zones from Tishkov (2002). B. Study area on a globe. C. Landsat satellite image showing water bodies, vegetation cover, and flow directions of the Molodo River. Water depth and position of the sediment cores PG2023 and PG2022 are marked in the lake. Catchment is indicated by red-dashed line. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Elemental and mineralogical sediment composition in the sediment core PG2023. Mineral contents were calculated as their ratio to the sum of the peak area intensity of the X-ray diffractometry data. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanner data are given as ratios or as counts per second (cps).
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  • Core characteristics. Age controls (based on Kido et al., 2007, and Yokoyama et al., 2007), meters below the sea floor (mbsf), layer number, sediment lightness (L*; gray bars indicate dark layers), sediment-fabric types (fi, fa, bi, and sbi indicate finely laminated, faintly laminated, bioturbated, and strongly bioturbated sediment fabrics, respectively), and sampling horizons (P and B indicate planktonic foraminifera and benthic foraminifera, respectively) for core MD01-2407. ... Examples of correlations between sediment fabrics and benthic foraminiferal assemblages in dark layers in core MD01-2407. cmbsf, cm below sea floor; L*, sediment lightness values (also see Fig. 2); dashed lines in sediment lightness graphs indicate dark layers; fi, fa, bi, and sbi indicate finely laminated, faintly laminated, bioturbated, and strongly bioturbated sediment fabrics, respectively. ... Age-depth curve for core MD01-2407. Age control points based on 14C ages (filled circles), correlations between the δ18Opf′ curve and the SPECMAP δ18O curve (filled squares), and tephrochronology (open circles). Data are from Kido et al. (2007) and Yokoyama et al. (2007). ... Oceanographic setting and study site. (a) Bathymetric map of the Japan Sea and surrounding waters, showing the location of core site MD01-2407. (b) Present surface-current flows in and around the Japan Sea (Naganuma, 1985; Ichikawa and Beardsley, 2002), showing the location of core site MD01-2407. Open circles show the locations of previously studied cores: GH95-1208 (Ikehara and Itaki, 2005), KT94-15 PC-5 (Watanabe et al., 2007), and MD01-2408 (Watanabe et al., 2007). ... Late Quaternary... Definition of dark-layer types in core MD01-2407 based on benthic foraminiferal assemblages. Abundance of the major benthic foraminiferal species in the investigated samples and dark-layer types defined by the benthic foraminiferal assemblages.
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  • Timing of afforestation (AP/NAP) and Chenopodiaceae variations, recorded in Lake Paravani, Lake Van (Wick et al., 2003) and Lake Zeribar (Van Zeist and Bottema, 1977). The lower dotted line indicates the Lateglacial–Holocene boundary (Wright et al., 2003) and the arrows represent the delay of forest expansion. The sedimentation rate and the age/calibration are not standardized amongst the different sequences. The Lake Zeribar diagram is based on pollen data from the EPD (European Pollen Database). The AP, NAP and Chenopodiaceae curves of Lakes Van and Zeribar are calculated as well as in the original articles (Van Zeist and Bottema, 1977; Wick et al., 2003). ... Bulk X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the sediments samples PAR01 18–20, 34–36, 56–58, 76–78, 86–88 at different depths. The mineralogical assemblages are dominated by silicates with quartz (Qtz), amphibole (Amp), albite (Ab), muscovite (Ms), biotite (Bt), clinochlore (Chl) and clay minerals as vermiculite (Vm). ... A. Geological map of the Lake Paravani area, showing the locations of the core site, and lava samples for 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating. B. Photo of the moraine deposits in the surroundings of Lake Paravani. The terminal and lateral moraines define the Last Glacial Maximum extent with a lake Paravani surrounded by glacial tongues. This sector is considered as a proglacial area with fluvio-glacial material deposited by melt-water pulse and debacle episodes. ... List of AMS 14C dates from Paravani core PAR01. 14C ages were calibrated using INTCAL09 (Stuiver and Reimer, 1993; Reimer et al., 2009). ... Lithology, magnetic susceptibility (10−5 SI) and grain-size curves from PAR01 versus core depth in cm and age. The cumulative in the middle (mean) and frequency curves on the right (main grain-size populations) are represented for the grain-size analysis.
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  • Long and short cores obtained in both, the deep and shallow subbasins of the Lake El Tobar. Composite sedimentary sequence resulted from the correlation of short core TOB07-1A-1G (red), the section 2 from thelong core TOB04-1D-1K-2 (green) and the sections 2 to 6 from the long core TOB04-1B-1K (blue). Cores were correlated by using the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and visual comparison of the sediment. Sedimentary events (inlight brown) can be easily traced along the long cores in both subbasins, thus they affect the whole lake. ... A) Left: Iberian Peninsula and main Iberian Range geological units. Right: Subdivision of the Iberian Range in the study area: Serranía Alta, Media and Baja. Green dots represent the locations of main regional records in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula discussed in text: Pyrenees (1, Estaña, 2, Montcortès), South (3, Zoñar) and Iberian Range (4, Taravilla, 5, Cañada del Hoyo). C) Bathymetric map of El Tobar Lake showing the main water inlets and outlets and the geometry of the small meromictic sub-basin and the large holomictic sub-basin. Number indicates the depth of the isobaths in meters. Yellow stars indicate the position of the recovered long-cores, while white star mark the collected 210Pb-137Cs short-core. Green and red dashed lines indicate the trace of the seismic survey in the deep and shallow basins respectively. D) Seismic lines from the deep sub-basin (green dashed line) and from the shallow sub-basin (red dashed line) and the location of coring sites. ... El Tobar Lake depositional evolution during the last 1000years. Main sedimentary (S1, S2, S3 and S4, brown-shaded) and changes in sediment delivery to the lake (PC1) and sediment organic content (PC2). The El Tobar record is compared with main regional flooding periods reconstructed from Taravilla Lake (Moreno et al., 2008) and Tagus River (Benito et al., 2003) records; and with available regional sequences from the nearby Lake La Parra (sediment delivery, Barreiro-Lostres et al., 2014) and Lake La Cruz (pollen record, Julià et al., 1998) in the Torcas karstic lake complex (see Fig. 1 for location). Crops pollen percentage includes Cerealia, Secale, Cannabacea and Vitis. Anthropogenic pollen taxa include Artemisia, Plantado, Chenopodia, Brassicace, Urticaceae, Rumex, Centaurea and Asteraceae. Main historical events with large landscape impacts in the study area are also shown. The global North Hemisphere ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ and the ‘Little Ice Age’ are represented following the chronology of Mann et al. (2009). Chronology for Iberian Peninsula climatic periods is based on Moreno et al. (2012) and Morellón et al. (2011). ... Left: Correlation using TOC (%) standardized values between the short core with 137Cs dates (red line, gray dotted line represents the smoothed curve) and the long-core (black line) with 14C dates. Right: Age-Depth model of El Tobar sequence based on four AMS 14C dates from the TOB04-1B-1K long core (blue horizontal lines) and 137Cs essays (topmost green points) from the short-core TOB07-1A-1G using a weighted spline regression (Blaauw, 2010). Red crossed dates have not been included in the model. Black line represents the age-depth function framed by error lines (gray shaded area). ... A) Composite sedimentary sequence from El Tobar. From left to right: units, core image, sediment stratigraphy, facies with sedimentary evolution organized in fining-upward sequences and sedimentary events, Lightness (L*), magnetic susceptibility (MS [SI]), density (ρ [g/cm3]), basic geochemistry TIC (%), TOC (%), TOC/TN (atomic) and TS (%), and PC1 and PC2 eigenvectors (plotted in red) summarizing geochemical XRF stratigraphy. B) Left: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of El Tobar composite record using main geochemical XRF elements, elemental composition (TOC, TIC, TS), incoherence/coherence ratio (IC). The first eigenvector (PC1) highlights the detrital inputs, whereas the second eigenvector (PC2) is interpreted as changes in organic content. Right: Map of the facies distribution. ... Sediment delivery... Late Quaternary
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  • Summary of the main lithological features of the tephra layer embedded in the sediments of the studied interval of CET1 core. ... Chemical composition of the glasses extracted from the tephra layers embedded in the studied sediments of CET1 core and average composition of the reference pyroclastic products and/or tephra layers used for correlations. Locations of reference sites in Fig. C1. ... Dataset: oxygen and carbon isotope data in CET1 core. ... Averaged major elements compositions expressed as weight per cent of the glasses extracted from the tephra layers embedded in the studied sediments of CET1 core. ... Dataset: planktonic foraminifera in CET1 core. ... Late Quaternary
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