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  • Forced Oscillations, All Data.xlsx... Oscillation... Frequency
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  • Comparison of 3 oscillating elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ (created using electrical stimulation and measured using aequorin luminescence) in Arabidopsis seedlings. Treatment 1; high frequency high amplitude osc., Treatment 2; high frequency low amplitude osc., Treatment 3; low frequency low amplitude osc. One biological sample per experiment processed as technical dye swaps against intreated control.
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  • Oscillation detection in a single electrode with weak alpha. The electrode was selected from the same subject as in Figs. 2 and 4. (A) The 256-electrode array with the selected electrode highlighted in yellow. (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue), and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes -closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The raw signal from the chosen electrode, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E, to show the spindle-like appearance of the alpha oscillation. ... Temporal independence of two alpha components. (A) An 8-s epoch from the alpha component shown in Fig. 2, with detected alpha-frequency oscillations highlighted in red. (B) The same time segment as in A, from the alpha component in Fig. 6. Note the alpha oscillation is maximal in B when the oscillation is at a minimum in A, demonstrating why these were extracted as temporally independent components. ... Lateralized alpha component. From the same subject as Figs. 2 and 4–5. (A) The spline-interpolated scalp distribution of an alpha component extracted by ICA. Color scale denotes electrode weight (unitless). (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue), and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes-closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The time-domain representation of the chosen component, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E. ... Oscillation detection in an ICA alpha component. (A) The spline-interpolated scalp distribution of an alpha component extracted by ICA. Color scale denotes electrode weight (unitless). (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue) and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes-closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The time-domain representation of the chosen component, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E, to show the spindle-like appearance of the alpha oscillation. ... Oscillation... Oscillation detection in a single electrode with strong alpha. The electrode was selected from the same subject as in Fig. 2. (A) The 256-electrode array with the selected electrode highlighted in yellow. (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue), and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes-closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The raw signal from the chosen electrode, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E to show the spindle-like appearance of the alpha oscillation.
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  • Effective oscillator strength distribution... Schematic of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole transitions to pseudo-states showing only the core excitations of Na. The 1s22s22p6 core electrons are assumed to only excite to the pseudo-states np˜, nd˜ and nf˜ with energies Δ(1), Δ(2) and Δ(3) via dipole, quadrupole and octupole transitions respectively. The oscillator strengths are fc(1), fc(2) and fc(3) respectively. ... The dipole, quadrupole and octupole effective oscillator strength distributions. See explanation of tables. ... Oscillator strength sum- rule... Convergence of the Cn dispersion parameters (in a.u.) for lithium dimer. The parameters are calculated using effective oscillator strength distributions with different sizes. Ne gives the number of effective oscillator strengths that were adopted. The ‘exact’ results were calculated using Eq. (9). We thus adopt the Ne=3 set of effective oscillator strengths, i.e. for each multipole (fe1(ℓ),ϵe1(ℓ),fe2(ℓ),ϵe2(ℓ), fe3(ℓ),ϵe3(ℓ)), which is given later in the paper. ... The effective oscillator strength distributions for all atoms or ions. k is the order of multipole. E is the transition energy. F is the oscillator strength.
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  • Frequency domain spectra of the C2 samples with and without degassing O2: (1) 0–2.048μs, (2) 2.048–4.092μs, (3) 4.092–6.136μs, (4) 5.952–8.000μs (decay at 470nm). ... The relation curves between frequency spectrum peak height and the timing course from the decays at 520nm (open square) and at 530nm (solid circle). The unit in ordinate was regulated and in abscissa 512ns for convenience and simplicity (left); the relation curves between frequency change of the top peak and timing course from the decays at 520nm (open square) and at 530nm (solid circle). The unit in ordinate was regulated and in abscissa 512ns for convenience and simplicity (right). ... (a) The transient absorption kinetic curve with the abnormal signals of the C1 compound at 500nm (measured in 2008) and corresponding to the frequency-domain spectra at each time period: (1) 0–1.024μs, (2) 1.024–2.046μs, (3) 16.932–17.954μs, (4) 17.954–18.976μs, (5) 18.976–19.998μs. (b) The transient absorption kinetic curve with the abnormal signals of the C1 compound at 470nm (measured in July 2012) and corresponding to the frequency-domain spectra at each time period: (1) 0–2.048μs, (2) 2.048–4.092μs, (3) 3.956–6.000μs, (4) 23.132–25.176μs, (5) 31.308–33.352μs, (6) 35.396–37.440μs.
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  • oscillations.... Energy also at lower frequencies... Oscillation... oscillations... oscillation
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  • As current gravitational wave (GW) detectors increase in sensitivity, and particularly as new instruments are being planned, there is the possibility that ground-based GW detectors will observe GWs from highly eccentric neutron star binaries. We present the first detailed study of highly eccentric BNS systems with full (3+1)D numerical relativity simulations using consistent initial conditions, i.e., setups which are in agreement with the Einstein equations and with the equations of general relativistic hydrodynamics in equilibrium. Overall, our simulations cover two different equations of state (EOSs), two different spin configurations, and three to four different initial eccentricities for each pairing of EOS and spin. We extract from the simulated waveforms the frequency of the f-mode oscillations induced during close encounters before the merger of the two stars. The extracted frequency is in good agreement with f-mode oscillations of individual stars for the irrotational cases, which allows an independent measure of the supranuclear equation of state not accessible for binaries on quasicircular orbits. The energy stored in these f-mode oscillations can be as large as 10−3  M⊙∼1051  erg, even with a soft EOS. In order to estimate the stored energy, we also examine the effects of mode mixing due to the stars’ offset from the origin on the f-mode contribution to the GW signal. While in general (eccentric) neutron star mergers produce bright electromagnetic counterparts, we find that for the considered cases with fixed initial separation the luminosity decreases when the eccentricity becomes too large, due to a decrease of the ejecta mass. Finally, the use of consistent initial configurations also allows us to produce high-quality waveforms for different eccentricities which can be used as a test bed for waveform model development of highly eccentric binary neutron star systems.
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  • Frequency diagram of ostracods in the JS-25 profile. ... Frequency diagram of ostracods in the JS-c profile. ... Frequency diagram of fossil Cladocera in the JS-25 profile. ... Frequency diagram of fossil Cladocera in the JS-c profile.
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  • A block diagram of the experimental setup. The difference frequency synthesizer (DFS), generates two spatially coincidental near-infrared (λ∼850nm) beam. The frequency difference (ν) between the two beams is tunable from DC to 1.64THz. These two beams are simultaneously amplified by a MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier), and subsequently, the amplified beams pump the photomixer to generate THz radiation at the difference frequency (ν). The THz wave then traverses the sample cell to reach the bolometer for spectral measurements. The bolometer signal is digitized and recorded by a PC-based data acquisition system. ... This is the file for inputting the experimental line frequencies into the SPFIT spectral analysis program. ... Measured ν2=1 transition frequencies and their pressure-shift parameters ... Spectrum of CO transition at 691.473076GHz. Add 689.255007GHz to the displayed x-axis values to obtain the correct THz frequency. The upper trace is a plot of the I vs. (ν3−ν2) and the lower trace is a plot of I vs.(s+Δ). For clarity, the two traces are artificially offset in the vertical direction. The sample cell contained 40 mtorr of CO. Tone-burst modulation was employed with a tone frequency of 2MHz, a burst frequency of 8kHz, and a lock-in time-constant of 1s. The frequency sweep was performed by stepping the microwave sweeper frequency, s, 0.0766MHz at a time over 50 MHz (only a 14MHz segment is shown here); the sweep duration was 300s. ... Frequency
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  • Float (mf) and counterweight (mc) mass combinations used for regular (Shallow) and near-focused (Mid, Max and Max2) wave-field testing with the round-ended, cylindrical float geometry which also features in another study by the authors [16]. Immersion draft (zeq), approximate wetted float radius (aw) at equilibrium, centre of gravity ordinate from the float base (zcog) and approximate heave and surge natural frequencies at f = 0.766 Hz (f3 and f1: calculated assuming small amplitude motion from WAMIT simulations [10]) are also listed. ... The three stages to tracking float motion using the position identification method: (a) frame image of float at rest taken from 25 FPS video footage, (b) binary image with the identified float stem upper surface, (c) path of the centre of the float stem upper surface during one float oscillation cycle and (d) measured time-varying float displacements (z(t): black line) of the Shallow draft float shown in (a–c) subjected to a regular wave-field of amplitude anom = 0.016 m and frequency f = 1.09 Hz. Calculated vertical position offsets of the float using the position identification method, zo(t), are shown as red markers. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of the article.) ... Variation of response amplitude ratio with (a) incident wave frequency and (b) non-dimensionalised wave slope. The circle, square and triangle markers correspond to nominal wave amplitudes anom = 0.010 m, 0.016 m and 0.022 m. In (b) the same response amplitude ratios in (a) are plotted, with additional values for wave amplitudes: anom = 0.007 m, 0.013 m, 0.0188 m and 0.025 m, shown as asterisk markers. ... Spectra derived from the Fourier transform of measured near-focused wave-fields (thin solid line): (a) fp = 0.688 Hz and (b) fp = 0.766 Hz and corresponding measured float heave responses. In each plot the frequency axis has been non-dimensionalised by the peak wave frequency and three float cases are shown: Mid draft; zeq = 0.085 m (thick solid line); Max draft; zeq = 0.11 m (thick dashed line) and Max2 draft; zeq = 0.11 m (thick dotted line). ... Variation of the ratio of measured (zm) and observed (using the position identification method: zo) vertical float displacement amplitudes with incident wave frequency. Error bars are included to illustrate the uncertainty of zo due to the pixel resolution (blue bars). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of the article.)
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