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  • Supplementary Information Files for 'Mechanistic Evaluation of Long-term In-stent Restenosis Based on Models of Tissue Damage and Growth' Abstract:Development and application of advanced mechanical models of soft tissues and their growth represent one of the main directions in modern mechanics of solids. Such models are increasingly used to deal with complex biomedical problems. Prediction of in-stent restenosis for patients treated with coronary stents remains a highly challenging task. Using a finite element method, this paper presents a mechanistic approach to evaluate the development of in-stent restenosis in an artery following stent implantation. Hyperelastic models with damage, verified with experimental results, are used to describe the level of tissue damage in arterial layers and plaque caused by such intervention. A tissue-growth model, associated with vessel damage, is adopted to describe the growth behaviour of a media layer after stent implantation. Narrowing of lumen diameter with time is used to quantify the development of in-stent restenosis in the vessel after stenting. It is demonstrated that stent designs and materials strongly affect the stenting-induced damage in the media layer and the subsequent development of in-stent restenosis. The larger the artery expansion achieved during balloon inflation the higher the damage introduced to the media layer, leading to an increased level of in-stent restenosis. In addition, the development of in-stent restenosis is directly correlated with the artery expansion during the stent deployment. The correlation is further used to predict the effect of a complex clinical procedure, such as stent overlapping, on the level of in-stent restenosis developed after percutaneous coronary intervention.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Research Data corresponding to figures of the published work Haris, A., Alevras, P., Mohammadpour, M. et al. Design and validation of a nonlinear vibration absorber to attenuate torsional oscillations of propulsion systems. Nonlinear Dyn (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11071-020-05502-z Files can be accessed via Matlab.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Supplementary Information Files for 'GO-modified flexible polymer nanocomposites fabricated via 3D stereolithography' Abstract:Graphene oxide (GO) induced enhancement of elastomer properties showed a great deal of potential in recent years, but it is still limited by the barrier of the complicated synthesis processes. Stereolithography (SLA), used in fabrication of thermosets and very recently in “flexible” polymers with elastomeric properties, presents itself as simple and user-friendly method for integration of GO into elastomers. In this work, it was first time demonstrated that GO loadings can be incorporated into commercial flexible photopolymer resins to successfully fabricate GO/elastomer nanocomposites via readily accessible, consumer-oriented SLA printer. The material properties of the resulting polymer was characterized and tested. The mechanical strength, stiffness, and the elongation of the resulting polymer decreased with the addition of GO. The thermal properties were also adversely affected upon the increase in the GO content based on differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis results. It was proposed that the GO agglomerates within the 3D printed composites, can result in significant change in both mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites. This study demonstrated the possibility for the development of the GO/elastomer nanocomposites after the optimization of the GO/“flexible” photoreactive resin formulation for SLA with suitable annealing process of the composite in future.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Supplementary Information Files for 'Distributed automated manufacturing of pluripotent stem cell products' Abstract:Establishing how to effectively manufacture cell therapies is an industry-level problem. Decentralised manufacturing is of increasing importance, and its challenges are recognised by healthcare regulators with deviations and comparability issues receiving specific attention from them. This paper is the first to report the deviations and other risks encountered when implementing the expansion of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in an automated three international site–decentralised manufacturing setting. An experimental demonstrator project expanded a human embryonal carcinoma cell line (2102Ep) at three development sites in France, Germany and the UK using the CompacT SelecT (Sartorius Stedim, Royston, UK) automated cell culture platform. Anticipated variations between sites spanned material input, features of the process itself and production system details including different quality management systems and personnel. Where possible, these were pre-addressed by implementing strategies including standardisation, cell bank mycoplasma testing and specific engineering and process improvements. However, despite such measures, unexpected deviations occurred between sites including software incompatibility and machine/process errors together with uncharacteristic contaminations. Many only became apparent during process proving or during the process run. Further, parameters including growth rate and viability discrepancies could only be determined post-run, preventing ‘live’ corrective measures. The work confirms the critical nature of approaches usually taken in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) manufacturing settings and especially emphasises the requirement for monitoring steps to be included within the production system. Real-time process monitoring coupled with carefully structured quality systems is essential for multiple site working including clarity of decision-making roles. Additionally, an over-reliance upon post-process visual microscopic comparisons has major limitations; it is difficult for non-experts to detect deleterious culture changes and such detection is slow.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Supplementary Information Files for 'Mechanistic Evaluation of Long-term In-stent Restenosis Based on Models of Tissue Damage and Growth' Abstract:Development and application of advanced mechanical models of soft tissues and their growth represent one of the main directions in modern mechanics of solids. Such models are increasingly used to deal with complex biomedical problems. Prediction of in-stent restenosis for patients treated with coronary stents remains a highly challenging task. Using a finite element method, this paper presents a mechanistic approach to evaluate the development of in-stent restenosis in an artery following stent implantation. Hyperelastic models with damage, verified with experimental results, are used to describe the level of tissue damage in arterial layers and plaque caused by such intervention. A tissue-growth model, associated with vessel damage, is adopted to describe the growth behaviour of a media layer after stent implantation. Narrowing of lumen diameter with time is used to quantify the development of in-stent restenosis in the vessel after stenting. It is demonstrated that stent designs and materials strongly affect the stenting-induced damage in the media layer and the subsequent development of in-stent restenosis. The larger the artery expansion achieved during balloon inflation the higher the damage introduced to the media layer, leading to an increased level of in-stent restenosis. In addition, the development of in-stent restenosis is directly correlated with the artery expansion during the stent deployment. The correlation is further used to predict the effect of a complex clinical procedure, such as stent overlapping, on the level of in-stent restenosis developed after percutaneous coronary intervention.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Research Data corresponding to figures of the published work Haris, A., Alevras, P., Mohammadpour, M. et al. Design and validation of a nonlinear vibration absorber to attenuate torsional oscillations of propulsion systems. Nonlinear Dyn (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11071-020-05502-z Files can be accessed via Matlab.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Supplementary Information Files for 'GO-modified flexible polymer nanocomposites fabricated via 3D stereolithography' Abstract:Graphene oxide (GO) induced enhancement of elastomer properties showed a great deal of potential in recent years, but it is still limited by the barrier of the complicated synthesis processes. Stereolithography (SLA), used in fabrication of thermosets and very recently in “flexible” polymers with elastomeric properties, presents itself as simple and user-friendly method for integration of GO into elastomers. In this work, it was first time demonstrated that GO loadings can be incorporated into commercial flexible photopolymer resins to successfully fabricate GO/elastomer nanocomposites via readily accessible, consumer-oriented SLA printer. The material properties of the resulting polymer was characterized and tested. The mechanical strength, stiffness, and the elongation of the resulting polymer decreased with the addition of GO. The thermal properties were also adversely affected upon the increase in the GO content based on differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis results. It was proposed that the GO agglomerates within the 3D printed composites, can result in significant change in both mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites. This study demonstrated the possibility for the development of the GO/elastomer nanocomposites after the optimization of the GO/“flexible” photoreactive resin formulation for SLA with suitable annealing process of the composite in future.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Supplementary Information Files for 'Distributed automated manufacturing of pluripotent stem cell products' Abstract:Establishing how to effectively manufacture cell therapies is an industry-level problem. Decentralised manufacturing is of increasing importance, and its challenges are recognised by healthcare regulators with deviations and comparability issues receiving specific attention from them. This paper is the first to report the deviations and other risks encountered when implementing the expansion of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in an automated three international site–decentralised manufacturing setting. An experimental demonstrator project expanded a human embryonal carcinoma cell line (2102Ep) at three development sites in France, Germany and the UK using the CompacT SelecT (Sartorius Stedim, Royston, UK) automated cell culture platform. Anticipated variations between sites spanned material input, features of the process itself and production system details including different quality management systems and personnel. Where possible, these were pre-addressed by implementing strategies including standardisation, cell bank mycoplasma testing and specific engineering and process improvements. However, despite such measures, unexpected deviations occurred between sites including software incompatibility and machine/process errors together with uncharacteristic contaminations. Many only became apparent during process proving or during the process run. Further, parameters including growth rate and viability discrepancies could only be determined post-run, preventing ‘live’ corrective measures. The work confirms the critical nature of approaches usually taken in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) manufacturing settings and especially emphasises the requirement for monitoring steps to be included within the production system. Real-time process monitoring coupled with carefully structured quality systems is essential for multiple site working including clarity of decision-making roles. Additionally, an over-reliance upon post-process visual microscopic comparisons has major limitations; it is difficult for non-experts to detect deleterious culture changes and such detection is slow.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Supplementary Information Files for 'The low income gap: a new indicator based on a minimum income standard' Abstract:In many high-income countries, governments seek to ensure that households at least have sufficient incomes to afford basic essentials such as food and clothing, but also to help citizens reach socially acceptable living standards allowing full participation in society. Their success in doing so is commonly monitored in terms of how many citizens are below a poverty line set relative to median income, and by how far below it they fall (the ‘poverty gap’). Yet the threshold below which this gap starts to be measured is arbitrary, begging the question of what level of low income needs addressing. A more ambitious measure, presented in this paper, considers the extent to which people fall short of a benchmark representing a socially agreed minimum standard. This ‘low income gap’ can be used to represent the distance a society has to go to eliminate income that is undesirably low. The paper presents the indicator, its meaning and some recent trends in the United Kingdom, where the methodology behind the indicator has been pioneered. The results demonstrate that this empirically derived benchmark has the potential to be of value in other countries, in assessing whether they are making progress in reducing low income.
    Data Types:
    • Image
  • Supplementary Information Files for 'Evaluation of climate-based daylighting techniques for complex fenestration and shading systems' Abstract:The latest advancements in glazing technology are driving facade design towards complex and adaptive fenestration systems. Accurate simulation of their optical properties and operational controls for building daylight performance evaluation requires advanced modelling techniques, such as climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM). At the same time, computational efficiency is key to quickly simulate this complex performance over a full year. Over the years, several CBDM techniques were developed to answer these two main challenges, but they were never systematically benchmarked against each other. This paper compares state-of-the-art RADIANCE-based simulation techniques in terms of annual daylight performance metrics required by national guidelines and international green building rating schemes. The comparison is performed on three different shading systems: diffuse Venetian blinds, specular Venetian blinds, and perforated solar screens. Findings show that simulation methods are characterised by significant differences in their implementation and visual rendering, but most annual daylight metrics result in consistent values (within ± 20%). A notable exception is Annual Sunlight Exposure, which is highly sensitive to the chosen simulation method, with differences of up to 47 percentage points. Additional outcomes from the present work are used to compile a list of generalised recommendations for designers and policy makers.
    Data Types:
    • Image