Late Neogene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of DSDP Site 296, Leg 31, reveals this site as an ideal reference section for correlation of Blow's low-latitude zonation with the mid-latitude zonation for temperate faunal assemblages developed in this paper and earlier for DSDP Site 310, Leg 31 (Keller). Abundance of temperate species of Globorotalia (G. inflata, G. puncticulata, G. crassaformis, G. conomiozea) permit correlation with the zonal subdivision developed at Site 310 based on these species. Evolutionary changes within the Globorotalia inflata group also appear to be consistent biostratigraphie markers in mid latitudes; a primitive variety of this species first appears at about 3.3-3.1 Ma, G. inflata praeinflata appears at about 2.6 Ma, and the modern form appears at about 2.2-2.1 Ma.
Quantitative analyses of planktonic foraminifera at DSDP Site 296 reveal an inversely reciprocal frequencyoscillation between species of Globorotalia and the Globigerina-Globigerinita group. Cool climatic periods are characterized by high frequencies in the Globigerina-Globigerinita group and low frequencies in the Globorotalia group, whereas warm intervals are marked by high frequencies in the Globorotalia group and low frequencies in the Globigerina-Globigerinita group. Five cool paleoclimatic events can be recognized between early Pliocene and late Pleistocene: 4.4 Ma, 3.2-3.1 Ma, 2.4-2.2 Ma, 1.2 Ma, and 0.7 Ma. These paleoclimatic/paleoceanographic events have also been recognized in planktonic foraminifera of the Central and Northeast Pacific DSDP Sites 310 and 173 and also correlate to cold events recognized in oxygen isotope measurements of DSDP Site 310 and in equatorial Pacific cores. 1,828 occurrences
Late Neogene planktonic foraminifera have been examined at Site 310 in the Central North Pacific and their stratigraphic ranges and frequencies are presented here. Blow's (1969) zonation developed for tropical regions has been applied where applicable. Where tropical index taxa are rare or absent in this temperate region, Globorotalia crassaformis, and the evolutionary bioseries G. conoidea - G. conomiozea and G. puncticulata - G. inflata have been found useful for zonal subdivisions. A correlation between stratigraphic ranges and frequency distributions of these species at Site 310 in the Central North Pacific, and Site 284 in the Southwest Pacific indicates that these species are relatively consistent biostratigraphic markers in temperate regions of both the North and South Pacific Oceans. An informal zonation for temperate latitudes of the Southwest Pacific has been established by Kennett (1973) and a similar zonal subdivision can be made at Site 310. Paleoclimatic/paleoceanographic interpretations based on coiling ratios, percent abundance, and phenotypic variations of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma indicate four major cold events during early, middle, and late Pliocene, and early Pleistocene. Faunal correlations of these events with similar events elsewhere in the Northeast and Southwest Pacific which have been paleomagnetically dated indicate the following approximate ages for these cold events: 4.7 Ma, 3.0 Ma, 2.6-1.8 Ma, and 1.2 Ma. Faunal assemblages have been divided into three groups representing cool, intermediate, and warmer water assemblages. Cool water assemblages are dominated by ~60% N. pachyderma; intermediate temperature faunas are dominated by species of Globigerina and Globigerinita and contain between 20% and 30% N. pachyderma. Warmer water assemblages are dominated by species of Globorotalia and contain <10% N. pachyderma. Frequencyoscillations within these groups, in addition to paleotemperature parameters evident in N. pachyderma, afford refined paleoclimatic/paleoceanographic interpretations. 1,700 occurrences
Members of the calcareous nannofossil genus Discoaster have been used extensively to subdivide Tertiary deep-sea sediments into biostratigraphic zones or subzones (e.g., Martini, 1971; Bukry, 1973). Haq and Lohmann (1976) mapped biogeographic migrations of this group through time and over latitude. They suggested that expansions and contractions of Discoaster-dominated assemblages across latitudes reflect sea-surface temperature changes. Subsequently, late Pliocene Discoaster species were counted at closely spaced sample intervals from various Atlantic sites (Backman et al., 1986; Backman and Pestiaux, 1987; Chepstow-Lusty et al., 1989, 1991), and Indian Ocean as well as Pacific Ocean sites (Chepstow-Lusty, 1990). In addition to the biostratigraphic information revealing positions and the precision by which the different late Pliocene Discoaster species can be determined, these studies also demonstrated that discoasters strongly fluctuate in abundance as a function of time. These abundance variations occur in equatorial as well as temperate temperature regimes, and show periodicities that reflect orbital frequencies. Chepstow-Lusty et al. (1989, 1991) also suggested that the oscillating abundances partly represent productivity pressure, because discoasters tend to show low abundances under high productivity conditions and vice versa.
In the Pacific Ocean, counts showing late Pliocene Discoaster abundances exist from three sites, namely Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 677 in the eastern equatorial upwelling region, Core V28-179 from the central equatorial region, and Core V32-127 from the mid-latitude Hess Rise. The two Vema cores are condensed and show sedimentation rates below 0.5 cm/1000 yr, thus offering a poorly resolved stratigraphy. Hole 806C from the Ontong Java Plateau provided an opportunity to establish a highly resolved Discoaster record from the western extreme of the equatorial Pacific under an environmental setting that differed from ODP Site 677 by being less influenced by intense upwelling. The Discoaster counting technique is described by Backman and Shackleton (1983). 539 occurrences