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  • Dynamic stall phenomena bring risk for negative damping and instability in wind turbine blades. It is crucial to model these phenomena accurately to reduce inaccuracies in predicting design driving (fatigue) loads. Inaccuracies in current dynamic stall models may be due to the facts that they are not properly designed for high angles of attack, and that they do not specifically describe vortex shedding behaviour. The Snel second order dynamic stall model attempts to explicitly model unsteady vortex shedding. This model could therefore be a valuable addition to DNV GL’s turbine design software Bladed. In this thesis the model has been validated with oscillating airfoil experiments and improvements have been proposed for reducing inaccuracies. The proposed changes led to an overall reduction in error between the model and experimental data. Furthermore the vibration frequency prediction improved significantly. The improved model has been implemented in Bladed and tested against small scale turbine experiments at parked conditions. At high angles of attack the model looks promising for reducing mismatches between predicated and measured (fatigue) loading. Leading to possible lower safety factors for design and more cost efficient designs for future wind turbines.
    Data Types:
    • Slides
    • Document
  • Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 2001, Stratospheric Harbingers of Anomalous Weather Regimes. Science, 294, 581-584;Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 1999, Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30973-30946.Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1985: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.Barriopedro D. et al., 2008, Solar mo... North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): surface sea-level pressure difference between the Subtropical (Azores) High and the Subpolar Low. It is widely accepted that NAO variability has strong impact on weather circulations over Europe and US. Major stratospheric events have a significant impact on NAO. Data set: (1949-2017) from ESRL-NOAA.
    Data Types:
    • Slides
    • Document
  • Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 2001, Stratospheric Harbingers of Anomalous Weather Regimes. Science, 294, 581-584;Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 1999, Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30973-30946.Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1985: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.Barriopedro D. et al., 2008, Solar modulation of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking, Journal of Geophisical Research, Vol. 113, D14118.Locwood M. et al., 2010, Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 5, 2.Liu Z. et al., 2014, Solar cycle modulation of the Pacific–North American teleconnection influence on North American winter climate, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 9, 2.Schwander M. et al., 2017, Reconstruction of Central European daily weather types back to 1763. International Journal of Climatology, 37(Suppl.1): 30–44 (2017)Lockwood M., Owens M. J., 2014, Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux and streamer belt width: 3. Modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119, 5193–5209.Graf Hans‐F., Walter Katrin, 2005, Polar vortex controls coupling of North Atlantic Ocean and atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L01704. http://www.europeanwindstorms.org/cgi-bin/storms/storms.cgi... North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): surface sea-level pressure difference between the Subtropical (Azores) High and the Subpolar Low. It is widely accepted that NAO variability has strong impact on weather circulations over Europe and US. Major stratospheric events have a significant impact on NAO. Data set: (1949-2017) from ESRL-NOAA.
    Data Types:
    • Slides
  • Turbulent eddies from rotor to chord length scales carried along the mean wind in wind turbine wake flows cause rapid changes in speed and direction over the rotor disk. Some of these effects such as dynamic stall and its associated hysteresis are well known. Dynamic stall models are already implemented in most of BEM solvers using the famous Beddoes-Leishman model (see e.g. [1]). However, the developed theories are generally validated against inviscid theories with thin profile approximations and/or low Reynolds number experiments using a dynamic oscillation of the blade profile which reproduces effective velocity variation effects (see. e.g. [2]). Additional effects such as gust and turbulence are generally not taken into account in these approaches. Static or dynamic grid can be added at the inlet of a test section to reproduce a universal homogeneous isotropic turbulence [3] and a gust-like perturbation can be obtained using an additional by-pass duct [4]. The present study focuses on the characterization of a new system added at the inlet of the LHEEA wind tunnel test section to reproduce a sudden deficit of the wind inflow with large turbulent scales superimposed. The range of the produced deficit duration is targeted to be from one order of magnitude faster than the gust time scale in the atmosphere, to the order of a few seconds, to allow characterisation of actuator/sensor dynamics. The facility is a standard return-circuit aerodynamic facility. The test section is 2.6m long and has a 0.25 m2 cross-section. It can operate at a maximum speed of 40 m/s, which leads, with blade chords of around 0.1m, to a chord Reynolds number of ~2.105. The new perturbation system, called later “chopper”, is a rotor with an eccentric rotating axis relatively to the test section so that, when the chopper blade is passing through the test section, it induces an abrupt deficit of the wind inflow (figure 1a). The amplitude of this deficit can be controlled through the relative displacement between the chopper and the 2D blade profile. The associated wake of the chopper blade produces turbulent structures proportional to its blade section, which can be modified. First chopper blade shapes that will be tested are rectangular plates with sharp edges and no pitch angles in order to minimize and localize the shear area. Due to the rotation of the shopper blade, the time scale of the produced turbulent structures is driven by the rotation frequency of the chopper. Also, a grid can be added in front of the chopper, for an increase of the background turbulent intensity. A preliminary characterisation shows the ability of this perturbation system to reach a velocity deficit of 8m/s in 0.2s, which is an order of magnitude faster than the gust-like perturbation reproduced by [3] who obtained a velocity deficit of 4m/s in 2s (figure 1b). All these unsteady and turbulent features will allow us to extract the actuator/sensor dynamics and will allow studying the impact of unsteady and large scale turbulent inflows on the blade aerodynamics. First evaluations of the length scales downstream of the chopper system will be provided in the oral presentation.
    Data Types:
    • Slides
    • Document
  • Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 2001, Stratospheric Harbingers of Anomalous Weather Regimes. Science, 294, 581-584;Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 1999, Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30973-30946.Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1985: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.Barriopedro D. et al., 2008, Solar modulation of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking, Journal of Geophisical Research, Vol. 113, D14118.Locwood M. et al., 2010, Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 5, 2.Liu Z. et al., 2014, Solar cycle modulation of the Pacific–North American teleconnection influence on North American winter climate, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 9, 2.Schwander M. et al., 2017, Reconstruction of Central European daily weather types back to 1763. International Journal of Climatology, 37(Suppl.1): 30–44 (2017)Lockwood M., Owens M. J., 2014, Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux and streamer belt width: 3. Modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119, 5193–5209.Graf Hans‐F., Walter Katrin, 2005, Polar vortex controls coupling of North Atlantic Ocean and atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L01704. http://www.europeanwindstorms.org/cgi-bin/storms/storms.cgi... North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): surface sea-level pressure difference between the Subtropical (Azores) High and the Subpolar Low. It is widely accepted that NAO variability has strong impact on weather circulations over Europe and US. Major stratospheric events have a significant impact on NAO. Data set: (1949-2017) from ESRL-NOAA.
    Data Types:
    • Slides
    • Document