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Photocatalysis is deemed as an appealing strategy to exploit solar energy for simultaneous fuel production and pollutant utilisation. However, current photocatalytic systems rarely couple both processes and suffer from restricted scalability and sustainability as they use toxic and/or ultraviolet light harvesters, combined with noble- metal co-catalysts under corrosive conditions. Here, we show the synthesis of ultra- scalable and low-cost carbon nanodots from lignocellulosic waste, which when combined with a non-precious Ni-based co-catalyst, use visible light to drive H2 production in untreated river and sea water. Organic pollutants and chloride anions in these untreated media do not only allow unhindered photocatalytic activities, but also function as electron donors leading to economical pollutant utilisation. This system combines Earth’s most abundant resources (biomass, solar energy, untreated water), and functions at ambient temperature, pressure and physiological pH creating perspectives for simultaneous fuel synthesis and pollutant utilisation of sustainable and practical character
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Electrophoretic drug delivery devices are able to deliver drugs with exceptional temporal and spatial precision. This technology has emerged as a promising platform for treating pathologies ranging from neuropathic pain to epilepsy. As the range of applications continues to expand, there is an urgent need to understand the underlying physics and estimate materials and device parameters for optimal performance. Here, computational modeling of the electrophoretic drug delivery device is carried out. Three critical performance indices, namely, the amount of drug transported, the pumping efficiency and the ON/OFF ratio are investigated as a function of initial drug concentration in the device and fixed charge concentration in the ion exchange membrane. The results provide guidelines for future materials and device design with an eye towards tailoring device performance to match disease-specific demands.
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BACKGROUND:Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is nowadays an essential tool in critical care. Its role seems more important in neonates and children where other monitoring techniques may be unavailable. POCUS Working Group of the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care (ESPNIC) aimed to provide evidence-based clinical guidelines for the use of POCUS in critically ill neonates and children. METHODS:Creation of an international Euro-American panel of paediatric and neonatal intensivists expert in POCUS and systematic review of relevant literature. A literature search was performed, and the level of evidence was assessed according to a GRADE method. Recommendations were developed through discussions managed following a Quaker-based consensus technique and evaluating appropriateness using a modified blind RAND/UCLA voting method. AGREE statement was followed to prepare this document. RESULTS:Panellists agreed on 39 out of 41 recommendations for the use of cardiac, lung, vascular, cerebral and abdominal POCUS in critically ill neonates and children. Recommendations were mostly (28 out of 39) based on moderate quality of evidence (B and C). CONCLUSIONS:Evidence-based guidelines for the use of POCUS in critically ill neonates and children are now available. They will be useful to optimise the use of POCUS, training programs and further research, which are urgently needed given the weak quality of evidence available.
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The role of rotational molecular motors of the ATP synthase class is integral to the metabolism of cells. Yet the function of FliI6-FliJ complex - a homolog of the F1 ATPase motor - within the flagellar export apparatus remains unclear. We use a simple two-state model adapted from studies of linear molecular motors to identify key features of this motor. The two states are the 'locked' ground state where the FliJ coiled coil fi lament experiences fluctuations in an asymmetric torsional potential, and a 'free' excited state in which FliJ undergoes rotational diffusion. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was used to treat transitions between these two states, and obtain the average angular velocity of the FliJ lament within the FliI6 stator: Wmax = 9:0 rps. The motor was then studied under external counter torque conditions in order to ascertain its maximal power output: Pmax = 42 kBT/s, and the stall torque: Gstall = 3 kBT/rad. Two modes of action within the flagellar export apparatus are proposed, in which the motor performs useful work either by continuously 'grinding' through the resistive environment, or by exerting equal and opposite stall force on it. In both cases, the resistance is provided by flagellin subunits entering the flagellar export channel prior to their unfolding. We therefore propose that the function of the FliI6-FliJ complex is to lower the energy barrier and therefore assist in unfolding of the flagellar proteins before feeding them into the transport channel.
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Corals have evolved as optimised photon augmentation system, leading to space-efficient microalgal growth and outstanding photosynthetic quantum efficiencies. Light attenuation due to algal self-shading is a key limiting factor for the upscaling of microalgal cultivation. Coral-inspired light management systems could overcome this limitation and facilitate scalable bioenergy and bioproduct generation. Here, we develop 3D printed bionic corals capable of growing microalgae with high spatial cell densities of up to 109 cells mL-1. The hybrid photosynthetic biomaterials are produced with a 3D bioprinting platform which mimics morphological features of living coral tissue and the underlying skeleton with micron resolution, including their optical and mechanical properties. The programmable synthetic microenvironment thus allows for replicating both structural and functional traits of the coral-algal symbiosis. Our work defines a class of bionic materials that is capable of interacting with living organisms and can be exploited for applied coral reef research and photobioreactor design.
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