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  • This zip file include the example Matlab code for the soft-constrained (auxiliary) particle filters. The associated article has abstract:In practice, additional knowledge about the target to be tracked, other than its fundamental dynamics, can often be modelled as a set of soft constraints and utilised in a filtering process to improve the tracking performance. This paper develops a general approach to the modelling of soft inequality constraints, and investigates particle filtering with soft state constraints for target tracking. We develop two particle filtering algorithms with soft inequality constraints, i.e. a sequential-importanceresampling particle filter and an auxiliary sampling mechanism. The latter probabilistically selects the candidate particles from the soft inequality constraints of the state variables so that they are more likely to comply with the soft constraints. The performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations in a target tracking scenario.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • This is the code accompanying the IEEE Access journal "A Basic Probability Assignment Methodology for Unsupervised Wireless Intrusion Detection".
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • Sample data and Matlab® scripts to accompany: Graham, D. J., and Gadsden, R. J. (2019) New statistical methods for the comparison and characterisation of particle shape. Earth Surface Processess and Landforms. Abstract: This paper presents novel methods for robust statistical testing of particle shape data. Shape (the relative lengths of three orthogonal axes) is a key property of sedimentary particles, providing information on provenance, transport history and depositional environment. However, the usefulness of shape data, including the ability to make robust comparisons between samples, has been constrained by the absence of a satisfactory definition of the mean shape for a sample of particles. Such a definition is proposed and used to develop confidence regions for the population mean shape using both parametric (theoretical) and computational (bootstrap) methods. These techniques are based on a transform that permits multivariate statistical methods for the analysis of compositional data to be extended to shape. These techniques are validated with reference to a dataset of 169 clast samples and found to perform well. A statistical test on the mean – using the multivariate extension of Student's t‐test, Hotelling's T2 – is presented. The benefits of the methods presented are demonstrated with reference to a case study.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • Appendix II. Computer programme DLVO. Scanned from microfiche. Abstract:The treatment of paper mill effluents involves a succession of unit processes to remove the impurities that may vary in size by about six orders of magnitude. process of primary importance in this study The unit was the biological treatment stage, where an understanding of the flocculation and sedimentation of micro-organisms is needed in order to operate it efficiently.A bench-scale chemostat was constructed to operate as a model treatment plant, and the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were determined. Similarly the properties of pilot-plants and paper mill treatment plants were determined. The results were compared with treatment data available from other International Paper Company mills. The electrokinetic properties of the predominantly microbial particles in the treatment systems were measured using microelectrophoresis. DetaiI s of the natural variation in the electrophoretic mobility were obtained, and the effects of calcium chloride and aluminium sulphate on these systems were measured. The variation in the mobility of a single population was found to be small for such a heterogeneous population and the implications are that a common material is adsorbed on the particle surfaces. Estimates for the particle concentration, volume fraction and Debye-Huckel parameter of the biological effluents were obtained. Using a multi-equation computer programme, based on DLVO theory and modified to include adsorbed layers, the magni tude of the long-range (>3nm) van der Waal sand electrostatic forces were calculated for interacting biological colloids of 0.5-2.0 ~m diameter. The effect of adsorbed layers and changes in the particle composition on the stability of these systems appears to be minor. The validity of applying DLVO theory to such heterodisperse and poorly defined dispersions is discussed. Consideration was also given to the role that these forces play in the flocculation of biological effluents. The rate of sedimentation was measured at constant temperature in precision bore glass columns. Using an interactive computer programme, based on the work of Carstensen ~ Su (1970a,b), the data was analysed. The validity of using this model for studying effluent dispersions was tested and discussed. The effect of aluminium sulphate, calcium chloride and sodium chloride on the sedimentation of the effluents was examined with reference to the electrophoretic mobility data for the same systems. This study has given an idea of the complexity of paper mill effluents and the need for model studies on the individual components of the system.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • Code used to process upper limb kinematics as reported in the article: STONE, B.W. ... et al, 2019. Shoulder and thorax kinematics contribute to increased power output of competitive handcyclists. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. Abstract:Current knowledge of recumbent handbike configuration and handcycling technique is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the upper limb kinematics and handbike configurations of recreational and competitive recumbent handcyclists, during sport‐specific intensities. Thirteen handcyclists were divided into two significantly different groups based on peak aerobic power output (POpeak) and race experience; competitive (n = 7; 5 H3 and 2 H4 classes; POpeak: 247 ± 20 W) and recreational (n = 6; 4 H3 and 2 H4 classes; POpeak: 198 ± 21 W). Participants performed bouts of exercise at training (50% POpeak), competition (70% POpeak), and sprint intensity while three‐dimensional kinematic data (thorax, scapula, shoulder, elbow, and wrist) were collected. Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare the kinematics of competitive and recreational handcyclists. Handbike configurations were determined from additional markers on the handbike. Competitive handcyclists flexed their thorax (~5°, P < 0.05), extended their shoulder (~10°, P < 0.01), and posteriorly tilted their scapular (~15°, P < 0.05) more than recreational handcyclists. Differences in scapular motion occurred only at training intensity while differences in shoulder extension and thorax flexion occurred both at training and competition intensities. No differences were observed during sprinting. No significant differences in handbike configuration were identified. This study is the first to compare the upper limb kinematics of competitive recreational handcyclists at sport‐specific intensities. Competitive handcyclists employed significantly different propulsion strategies at training and competition intensities. Since no differences in handbike configuration were identified, these kinematic differences could be due to technical training adaptations potentially optimizing muscle recruitment or force generation of the arm.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • This zip file include the example Matlab code for the soft-constrained (auxiliary) particle filters. The associated article has abstract:In practice, additional knowledge about the target to be tracked, other than its fundamental dynamics, can often be modelled as a set of soft constraints and utilised in a filtering process to improve the tracking performance. This paper develops a general approach to the modelling of soft inequality constraints, and investigates particle filtering with soft state constraints for target tracking. We develop two particle filtering algorithms with soft inequality constraints, i.e. a sequential-importanceresampling particle filter and an auxiliary sampling mechanism. The latter probabilistically selects the candidate particles from the soft inequality constraints of the state variables so that they are more likely to comply with the soft constraints. The performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations in a target tracking scenario.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • This is the code accompanying the IEEE Access journal "A Basic Probability Assignment Methodology for Unsupervised Wireless Intrusion Detection".
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • Sample data and Matlab® scripts to accompany: Graham, D. J., and Gadsden, R. J. (2019) New statistical methods for the comparison and characterisation of particle shape. Earth Surface Processess and Landforms. Abstract: This paper presents novel methods for robust statistical testing of particle shape data. Shape (the relative lengths of three orthogonal axes) is a key property of sedimentary particles, providing information on provenance, transport history and depositional environment. However, the usefulness of shape data, including the ability to make robust comparisons between samples, has been constrained by the absence of a satisfactory definition of the mean shape for a sample of particles. Such a definition is proposed and used to develop confidence regions for the population mean shape using both parametric (theoretical) and computational (bootstrap) methods. These techniques are based on a transform that permits multivariate statistical methods for the analysis of compositional data to be extended to shape. These techniques are validated with reference to a dataset of 169 clast samples and found to perform well. A statistical test on the mean – using the multivariate extension of Student's t‐test, Hotelling's T2 – is presented. The benefits of the methods presented are demonstrated with reference to a case study.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • Appendix II. Computer programme DLVO. Scanned from microfiche. Abstract:The treatment of paper mill effluents involves a succession of unit processes to remove the impurities that may vary in size by about six orders of magnitude. process of primary importance in this study The unit was the biological treatment stage, where an understanding of the flocculation and sedimentation of micro-organisms is needed in order to operate it efficiently.A bench-scale chemostat was constructed to operate as a model treatment plant, and the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were determined. Similarly the properties of pilot-plants and paper mill treatment plants were determined. The results were compared with treatment data available from other International Paper Company mills. The electrokinetic properties of the predominantly microbial particles in the treatment systems were measured using microelectrophoresis. DetaiI s of the natural variation in the electrophoretic mobility were obtained, and the effects of calcium chloride and aluminium sulphate on these systems were measured. The variation in the mobility of a single population was found to be small for such a heterogeneous population and the implications are that a common material is adsorbed on the particle surfaces. Estimates for the particle concentration, volume fraction and Debye-Huckel parameter of the biological effluents were obtained. Using a multi-equation computer programme, based on DLVO theory and modified to include adsorbed layers, the magni tude of the long-range (>3nm) van der Waal sand electrostatic forces were calculated for interacting biological colloids of 0.5-2.0 ~m diameter. The effect of adsorbed layers and changes in the particle composition on the stability of these systems appears to be minor. The validity of applying DLVO theory to such heterodisperse and poorly defined dispersions is discussed. Consideration was also given to the role that these forces play in the flocculation of biological effluents. The rate of sedimentation was measured at constant temperature in precision bore glass columns. Using an interactive computer programme, based on the work of Carstensen ~ Su (1970a,b), the data was analysed. The validity of using this model for studying effluent dispersions was tested and discussed. The effect of aluminium sulphate, calcium chloride and sodium chloride on the sedimentation of the effluents was examined with reference to the electrophoretic mobility data for the same systems. This study has given an idea of the complexity of paper mill effluents and the need for model studies on the individual components of the system.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code
  • Code used to process upper limb kinematics as reported in the article: STONE, B.W. ... et al, 2019. Shoulder and thorax kinematics contribute to increased power output of competitive handcyclists. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. Abstract:Current knowledge of recumbent handbike configuration and handcycling technique is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the upper limb kinematics and handbike configurations of recreational and competitive recumbent handcyclists, during sport‐specific intensities. Thirteen handcyclists were divided into two significantly different groups based on peak aerobic power output (POpeak) and race experience; competitive (n = 7; 5 H3 and 2 H4 classes; POpeak: 247 ± 20 W) and recreational (n = 6; 4 H3 and 2 H4 classes; POpeak: 198 ± 21 W). Participants performed bouts of exercise at training (50% POpeak), competition (70% POpeak), and sprint intensity while three‐dimensional kinematic data (thorax, scapula, shoulder, elbow, and wrist) were collected. Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare the kinematics of competitive and recreational handcyclists. Handbike configurations were determined from additional markers on the handbike. Competitive handcyclists flexed their thorax (~5°, P < 0.05), extended their shoulder (~10°, P < 0.01), and posteriorly tilted their scapular (~15°, P < 0.05) more than recreational handcyclists. Differences in scapular motion occurred only at training intensity while differences in shoulder extension and thorax flexion occurred both at training and competition intensities. No differences were observed during sprinting. No significant differences in handbike configuration were identified. This study is the first to compare the upper limb kinematics of competitive recreational handcyclists at sport‐specific intensities. Competitive handcyclists employed significantly different propulsion strategies at training and competition intensities. Since no differences in handbike configuration were identified, these kinematic differences could be due to technical training adaptations potentially optimizing muscle recruitment or force generation of the arm.
    Data Types:
    • Software/Code