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This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects and signaling mechanisms of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and its components [surface-layer protein (SLP), DNA, exopolysaccharides, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides] on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) IPEC-J2.
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Animal models of audiogenic epilepsy are useful tools to understand the mechanisms underlying human reflex epilepsies. There is accumulating evidence regarding behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, and genetic substrates of audiogenic seizure strains, but there are still aspects concerning their neurochemical basis that remain to be elucidated. Previous studies have shown the involved of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in audiogenic seizures. The aim of our research was to clarify the role of the GABAergic system in the generation of epileptic seizures in the genetic audiogenic seizure-prone hamster (GASH:Sal) strain.
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The research was to appraise the utility of the patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) as models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+HER2− and ER+HER2+) breast cancers. We compared protein expression profiles by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) in tumors that resulted in PDXs compared to those that did not. Our overall PDX intake rate for ER+ breast cancer was 9% (9/97). The intake rate for ER+HER2+ tumors (3/16, 19%) was higher than for ER+HER2− tumors (6/81, 7%). Heat map analyses of RPPA data showed that ER+HER2− tumors were divided into 2 groups by luminal A/B signature [protein expression of ER, AR, Bcl-2, Bim (BCL2L11), GATA3 and INPP4b], and this expression signature was also associated with the rate of PDX intake. Cell survival pathways such as the PI3K/AKT signaling and RAS/ERK pathways were more activated in the specimens that could be established as PDX in both classes. Expression of the ER protein itself may have a bearing on the potential success of an ER+ PDX model. In addition, HER2 and its downstream protein expressions were up-regulated in the ER+HER2+ patient tumors that were successfully established as PDX models. Moreover, the comparison of RPPA data between original and PDX tumors suggested that the selection/adaptation process required to grow the tumors in mice is unavoidable for generation of ER+ PDX models, and we identified differences between patient tumor samples and paired PDX tumors. A better understanding of the biological characteristics of ER+PDX would be the key to using PDX models in assessing treatment strategies in a preclinical setting.
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X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder induced by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene, which causes the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in tissue and plasma. Oxidative stress may be a hallmark of X-ALD. In the plasma of X-ALD patients with different forms of the disease, characterized by high levels of C24:0 and C26:0, we observed the presence of oxidative stress revealed by decreased levels of GSH, α-tocopherol, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We showed that oxidative stress caused the oxidation of cholesterol and linoleic acid, leading to the formation of cholesterol oxide derivatives oxidized at C7 (7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC), and 7α-hydroxycholesrol (7α-OHC)) and of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9-HODE, 13-HODE), respectively. High levels of 7KC, 7β-OHC, 7α-OHC, 9-HODE and 13-HODE were found. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, which could play key roles in the development of X-ALD, the impact of 7KC on the peroxisomal status was determined in microglial BV-2 cells. Indeed, environmental stress factors such as 7KC could exacerbate peroxisomal dysfunctions in microglial cells and thus determine the progression of the disease. 7KC induces oxiapoptophagy in BV-2 cells: overproduction of H2O2 and O2−, presence of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, nuclear condensation and/or fragmentation; elevated [LC3-II/LC3-I] ratio, increased p62 levels. 7KC also induces several peroxisomal modifications: decreased Abcd1, Abcd2, Abcd3, Acox1 and/or Mfp2 mRNA and protein levels, increased catalase activity and decreased Acox1-activity. However, the Pex14 level was unchanged. It is suggested that high levels of 7KC in X-ALD patients could foster generalized peroxisomal dysfunction in microglial cells, which could in turn intensify brain damage.
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In multiple sclerosis (MS) a process of white matter degradation leading to demyelination is observed. Oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, necrosis and/or autophagy result together into a progressive loss of oligodendrocytes. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), found increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients, triggers a rupture of RedOx homeostasis associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, aptoptosis and autophagy (oxiapoptophagy) in cultured murine oligodendrocytes (158N). α-tocopherol is able to mild the alterations induced by 7KC partially restoring the cellular homeostasis. In presence of 7KC, the amount of adherent 158N cells was decreased and oxidative stress was enhanced. An increase of caspase-3 and PARP degradation (evidences of apoptosis), and an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio (criterion of autophagy), were detected. These events were associated with a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and by a decrease of oxidative phosphorylation revealed by reduced NAD+ and ATP. The cellular lactate was higher while pyruvate, citrate, fumarate, succinate (tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates) were significantly reduced in exposed cells, suggesting that an impairment of mitochondrial respiratory functions could lead to an increase of lactate production and to a reduced amount of ATP and acetyl-CoA available for the anabolic pathways. The concentration of sterol precursors lathosterol, lanosterol and desmosterol were significantly reduced together with satured and unsatured long chain fatty acids (C16:0 − C18:0, structural elements of membrane phospholipids). Such reductions were milder with α-tocopherol. It is likely that the cell death induced by 7KC is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, including alterations of oxidative phosphorylation, which could result from lipid anabolism dysfunctions, especially on TCA cycle intermediates. A better knowledge of mitochondrial associated dysfunctions triggered by 7KC will contribute to bring new information on the demyelination processes which are linked with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, especially in MS.
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Mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in several non demyelinating or demyelinating neurodegenerative diseases. Some of them, including multiple sclerosis (MS), are associated with lipid peroxidation processes leading to increased levels of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). So, the eventual protective effect of dimethylfumarate (DMF), which is used for the treatment of MS, was evaluated on 7KC-treated oligodendrocytes, which are myelin synthesizing cells. To this end, murine oligodendrocytes 158N were exposed to 7KC (25, 50μM) for 24h without or with DMF (1, 25, 50μM). The biological activities of DMF associated or not with 7KC were evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, crystal violet and MTT tests. The impact on transmembrane mitochondrial potential (ΔYm), O2− and H2O2 production, apoptosis and autophagy was measured by microscopical and flow cytometric methods by staining with DiOC6(3), dihydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine 123, Hoechst 33342, and by Western blotting with the use of specific antibodies raised against uncleaved and cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, and LC3-I/II. DMF attenuates the different effects of 7KC, namely: cell growth inhibition and/or loss of cell adhesion, decrease of ΔΨm, O2− and H2O2 overproduction, PARP and caspase-3 cleavage, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and activation of LC3-I into LC3-II. The ability of DMF to attenuate 7KC-induced reactive oxygen species overproduction, apoptosis, and autophagy on oligodendrocytes reinforces the interest for this molecule for the treatment of MS or other demyelinating diseases.
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Pyrethroid insecticide use has increased over recent years because of their low to moderate acute toxicity in mammals. However, there is increasing concern over the potential detrimental effects of pyrethroids on developing animals. Most recently, we have shown that developmental exposure to deltamethrin results in long-term neurobehavioral effects. Pyrethroids exert their toxicity by acting on the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav), delaying channel inactivation and causing hyperexcitability in the nervous system. Previous in vitro studies found that exposure to agents that increase Na+ influx, including deltamethrin decreased Nav mRNA expression. However, it is unknown whether this occurs in vivo. To determine whether developmental pyrethroid exposure decreases Nav mRNA expression, pregnant mice were exposed to the pyrethroid deltamethrin (0 or 3mg/kg) every three days throughout gestation and lactation. Nav mRNA expression was measured in the striatum and cortex of the offspring at 10–11 months of age, a time at which behavioral abnormalities were still observed. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin decreased expression of Nav mRNA in a region- and isoform-specific fashion by 24–50%. Deltamethrin exposure also resulted in the persistent down-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) in the striatum by 66% but not in the cortex, suggesting a plausible mechanism for some of the associated behavioral effects observed previously. Taken together these data suggest that developmental deltamethrin exposure results in persistent deficits in Nav and BDNF mRNA expression that may contribute to long-term behavioral deficits.
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The proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in the yogurt consortium enhances the growth rate and size of each population. In contrast, the independent growth of the two species in milk leads to a slower growth rate and a smaller population size. In this study, we report the first evidence that the urease activity of S. thermophilus increases the intracellular pH of L. delbrueckii in the absence of carbon source. However, in milk, in the presence of lactose the alkalizing effect of urea-derived ammonia was not detectable. Nevertheless, based on glucose consumption and lactic acid production at different pHin, L. delbrueckii showed an optimum of glycolysis and homolactic fermentation at alkaline pH values. In milk, we observed that ammonia provided by urea hydrolysis boosted lactic acid production in S. thermophilus and in L. delbrueckii when the species were grown alone or in combination. Therefore, we propose that urease activity acts as an altruistic cooperative trait, which is costly for urease-positive individuals but provides a local benefit because other individuals can take advantage of urease-dependent ammonia release.
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Azacitidine (AZA) therapy has become the recommended first-line treatment for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and oligoblastic (<30% bone marrow blasts) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, improvement of the efficacy of AZA treatment remains a challenge. We retrospectively tested the hypothesis that VitD levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) prior to start of first-line AZA therapy are predictive of overall survival (OS) in patients diagnosed with MDS and secondary oligoblastic AML. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effects of AZA in combination with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were investigated in vitro.
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This work presents the results from the excavation of a multiple burial in a pseudo-tumular structure constructed in the Cueva Mayor cave in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos), specifically focusing on the entrance of this cave in an area known as El Portalón archaeological site. We recovered the skeletal remains of a minimum of eight individuals from several altered primary burials with bones showing different levels of associated grave goods and faunal remains. A series of radiocarbon dates obtained from seeds, human and animal bones, place these burials at the end of the fifth millennium BP. The domestic animals and ceramics suggest a complex and symbolic human–animal relationship. The information obtained from the site of El Portalón significantly broadens our understanding of funerary rituals during the Chalcolithic period.
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