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Order-picking is the activity to retrieve items from the shelves to fulfill customers' orders. Order-picking is one of the most costly operations in warehousing accounting for 50–75% of total operating costs. This paper presents a novel model that is motivated by the normative order-picking algorithm known as “bucket brigades” to address multiple aisles in warehouses where workers have finite walk-back velocities and are allowed to pass successors. In order-picking operations, the majority of the previous research works have applied bucket brigades over a single-line (serial) system. The contributions of this research work are as follows. (1) A summary of an updated literature review of bucket brigades using a state-of-the-art-matrix. (2) A novel multi-aisle order picking model motivated by the normative single-aisle bucket brigade, which represents a more comprehensive and realistic scenario in order fulfillment warehouses. (3) A comparison between the single-line and multi-aisle models in order to analyze the difference in performance in terms of average system utilization, order cycle time and throughput. (4) A sensitivity analysis of different parameters and scenarios in order to identify the best routing heuristic, storage assignment and order type that maximizes utilization, minimizes cycle time and maximizes throughput in multi-aisle order picking systems. The results of the simulation studies are reported and analyzed. The proposed model is flexible and easily scalable to include other real-life warehousing considerations.
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The most important issue of intelligent mobile robot development is to navigate autonomously in the environment for completing certain task demands. Nowadays, the Kinect sensor is affordable and popular for acquiring environment RGB image pixels with depth estimation. In this study, we focus on developing the indoor localization system for intelligent mobile robot applications. The innovation of this research is to combine the RGB-D mapping and neural network training for achieving an Indoor Positioning System. It is expected that the inputs are the robot’s observations of environmental features / landmarks and the direct output is the robot’s posture which will correspond to the RGB-D map. All the experimental results suggest that the robot’s posture and localization adjusts very efficiently with this study’s proposed method.
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Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 31777MJha−1. Nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and irrigation water were the major energy-demanding inputs in grape production by a share of 36, 17, and 11% of the total energy inputs, respectively. The energy output was estimated as 202871MJha−1. Net energy, specific energy, energy efficiency, and energy productivity in orchard grape were calculated as 171095MJha−1, 1.85MJkg−1, 6.38, 0.54kgMJ−1, respectively. This information can be very useful in evaluating the sustainability of grape production in this region and can also provide a useful guide in order to prioritize the steps toward enhancing energy efficiency in these orchards.
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A total of 720 one day old chicks of three different commercial broiler strains (Isa, Ross and Arbor Acres), were obtained from hatching eggs stored for 0, 7 and 14days under 70–80% relative humidity and 16–18°C. Eighty chicks of each strain and storage period were used in the study. Chicks of each storage period were randomly divided into 4 replicates of 20 chicks in each of equal group weight and randomly allotted to 1m×1.5m pens located in an environmentally controlled house. Birds were fed a starter diet to 3weeks, followed by finisher diet to 5weeks of age, which contain 21.5% and 18.5% crude protein and 2950 and 3100kcal/kg metabolizable energy, respectively. At 5weeks of age, 3 males and 3 females were randomly selected from each replicate, individually weighed and were slaughtered after they have been fasted for 12h. Measurements were made of bird plant weight, carcass weight and its percentage of plant weight, abdominal fat weight, heart, liver and gizzard weights and their percentages of plant and carcass weight. The results of study reported herein revealed that strain and storage period of hatching eggs had a pronounced effect upon most studied traits. The results also showed that broilers of Arbor Acres and those of hatching eggs stored for seven days or less had in general the best carcass traits.
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Two experiments were carried out to study the effect of the electromagnetic treatment of saline water on seed germination of corn and the response of soil and potato crop irrigated with such water. The experiments were performed under controlled conditions with different water quality and soil texture. The electromagnetic water treatment was applied using Aqua-4D physical water treatment device. Results showed a significant increase in germination rate of corn seedlings watered with electromagnetic-treated saline water (EC=4dSm−1), particularly when water was exposed to electromagnetic fields for 15min. The experiments carried on potato crop with two soil textures, showed a significant increase in tuber yield when irrigated with electromagnetic treated water. It was also observed a significant decrease of soil salinity (ECe), Na+ and Cl− contents of soils irrigated with electromagnetic treated saline water compared to the soils irrigated with non-treated saline water. In contrast, compared to both treatments (control treatment and saline water treatment), the electromagnetic saline water treatment produced non-significant effect on tuber yield, Mg2+ and HCO3-. However, the electromagnetic treatment of saline water increased significantly K+, N and P adsorption in all tissues of potato and decreased significantly the adverse effects of saline water. Based on our results, electromagnetic treatment of saline water can reduce the negative effect of salinity on corn germination and potato crop and increase yield in about 10% in test conditions.
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This study carried out a comparative analysis of the rates of production of biogas from various organic wastes and weeds which enabled the determination of optimal ratio of poultry droppings to domestic wastes. Digester was prepared for the anaerobic fermentation of the domestic wastes and weeds. The gas production did not begin until the 7th day and increased steadily at first, and then increased sharply until it reached its peak on the 18th day before declining. The total gas produced within the 22days of experimentation was 1771cm3. The maximum volume of gas amounting to 809cm3 was produced by the sample containing 50% poultry dropping and 50% weeds. This indicates that this sample possesses the best C/N ratio of all the samples prepared. For restarted digester, gas production began on the 2nd day as against the 7th day with no restarted digester and the gas production peaked earlier.
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TiO2/ZrO2 ceramic nanofiltration membranes are successfully fabricated through the polymeric sol-gel route followed by the dip-coating technique. Disk type α-alumina supported mesoporous γ-alumina (pore size: 5 - 6 nm) is employed as the support in dip-coating. The unsupported and supported composite ceramic membranes are systematically characterized and evaluated in terms of phase composition, chemical stability, gas adsorption, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), membrane pore size, water flux and salt rejection. It is found that the TiO2/ZrO2 ceramic membranes have amorphous phase at 400 and 500 °C, suggesting the high thermal stability. The fabricated membranes have the MWCO of 620 - 860 Da, corresponding to the membrane pore size of 1.2 - 1.5 nm. Relatively low water permeability can be attributed to the low microporosity of the membrane. Donnan exclusion is the dominant transport mechanism of the NF membrane in the single-component system, and salt rejection is closely related to the hydration properties of the ions (e.g., the hydration radius).
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O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a influência da eficiência do comportamento (EC) e da data de nascimento (DN) sobre o desempenho tático (DT) de jogadores de futebol da categoria sub‐13. A amostra foi composta por 100 jogadores que fizeram 5.213 ações táticas. Usou‐se o FUT‐SAT para a coleta e análise dos dados. Foi usado o teste de regressão multinomial e adotou‐se p<0,05. Verificaram‐se associações positivas entre a EC e o DN para os princípios “espaço”, “contenção” e “equilíbrio” e entre a DN e o DT ofensivo para os jogadores do segundo quartil. Concluiu‐se que uma melhor EC nos princípios “espaço”, “contenção” e “equilíbrio”, assim como a DN dos indivíduos, são fatores determinantes para o desempenho tático dos jogadores.
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This study was carried out in the Food Science Department, Agriculture College, Basrah University to investigate the effect of different chitosan concentrations on drinking water quality. The studied parameters were turbidity, TDS, electrical conductivity and pH. The results showed that the turbidity, TDS, electrical conductivity and pH have been decreased with the increase of chitosan concentration. When chitosan concentration increased from 0 to 1g 100ml−1, the turbidity, TDS, electrical conductivity and pH were decreased from 1.98 to 0.98 NTU, 5.67 to 4.13gL−1, 10.18 to 5.27mScm−1, 6.1 to 5.71 respectively. The linear equations have represented the relationship between all parameters and chitosan concentration. However, the total bacteria count, total coliform bacteria, Staphylococci, Fecal coliform bacteria and Vibrio spp. have been eliminated completely by using Chitosan concentration of 0.8, 0.4, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.2g100ml−1 respectively.
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