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We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species.
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The involvement of serotonin in aggression has traditionally been attributed to impaired prefrontal serotonergic inhibitory control of emotional reactions to provocations in antisocial individuals. However, it is unclear which specific serotonergic receptors are involved in the effects. A large body of preclinical research supports a specific role of serotonin 1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) in aggression and impulsivity, but this has never been evaluated in humans.
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Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood.
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This paper investigates nearly 30years of monitoring of sediment fluxes in an instrumented Alpine basin (Rio Cordon, Italy). The collected bedload and suspended sediment transport data allows sediment dynamics to be analyzed at different time scales, ranging from short- (single event) to long-term (three decades). The Rio Cordon monitoring station has been operating since 1986, continuously recording water discharge, bedload and suspended load. At the flood event scale, a good relationship was found between peak discharges (Qpeak) and sediment load (bedload and suspended load). The inter-annual sediment yields were analyzed, also assessing the contribution of the single floods to the total sediment budget. The annual suspended load ranges from 10 to 2524tyr−1, while the bedload varies from 0 to 1543tyr−1. The higher annual yields were recorded in the years when large floods occurred, highlighting that the sediment budget in the Rio Cordon is strongly controlled by the occurrence of high magnitude events. Investigation of the seasonal suspended load contribution demonstrated that from 1986 to 1993 most fine sediments were transported during the snowmelt/summer seasons, while autumn and snowmelt were the dominant seasons contributing to sediment yield in the periods 1994–2002 and 2003–2014, respectively. The mean annual sediment yield from 1986 to 2014 is equal to 103tkm−2yr−1, and overall, bedload accounts for 21% of the total sediment yield. The ratio between the sediment transport and the effective runoff of the events allowed the temporal trends of transport efficiency to be inferred, highlighting the existence of periods characterized by different sediment availability. In particular, despite no significant changes in the hydrological variables (i.e. rainfall), nearly a decade (1994–2002) with high transport efficiency appears to have occurred after an exceptional event (recurrence interval >100years). This event affected the sediment availability at the basin and channel bed scales, and provided a legacy influencing the sediment dynamics in the basin over the long-term by increasing the transport efficiency for approximately a decade. This work benefits from the long-lasting monitoring program undertaken in the Rio Cordon and is the product of long-term data series. The quasi-unique dataset has provided detailed evidence of sediment dynamics over about three decades in a small Alpine basin, also enabling the effects triggered by an exceptional event to be analyzed.
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A large body of transport sector-focused research recognizes the complexity of human behavior in relation to mobility. Yet, global integrated assessment models (IAMs), which are widely used to evaluate the costs, potentials, and consequences of different greenhouse gas emission trajectories over the medium-to-long term, typically represent behavior and the end use of energy as a simple rational choice between available alternatives, even though abundant empirical evidence shows that real-world decision making is more complex and less routinely rational. This paper demonstrates the value of incorporating certain features of consumer behavior in IAMs, focusing on light-duty vehicle (LDV) purchase decisions. An innovative model formulation is developed to represent heterogeneous consumer groups with varying preferences for vehicle novelty, range, refueling/recharging availability, and variety. The formulation is then implemented in the transport module of MESSAGE-Transport, a global IAM, although it also has the generic flexibility to be applied in energy-economy models with varying set-ups. Comparison of conventional and ‘behaviorally-realistic’ model runs with respect to vehicle purchase decisions shows that consumer preferences may slow down the transition to alternative fuel (low-carbon) vehicles. Consequently, stronger price-based incentives and/or non-price based measures may be needed to transform the global fleet of passenger vehicles, at least in the initial market phases of novel alternatives. Otherwise, the mitigation burden borne by other transport sub-sectors and other energy sectors could be higher than previously estimated. More generally, capturing behavioral features of energy consumers in global IAMs increases their usefulness to policy makers by allowing a more realistic assessment of a more diverse suite of policies.
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The hydrologic condition in Kien Giang province on the west coast of Vietnam's Mekong Delta is unique in the sense that it has extensive saline water intrusion during the dry season every year. Instead of a triple crop scheme like other areas in the Delta, a prawn and rice rotational cultivation scheme was initiated to facilitate agricultural production in Kien Giang. In this paper, the ecosystem services (ES) generated from the agriculture ecosystem under the prawn and rice rotational crops (PRRC) were assessed using an integrated approach. The specific ES identified here include water and nutrition regulation in the soil together with climate regulation in favor of the cultivated crops. A multi-disciplinary approach including remote sensing, GIS, social surveys and statistical analysis was adopted to comprehensively evaluate the geographical, biophysical, economic and social aspects of the ES. Firstly, Landsat 8 images were processed with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) to identify the areas cultivating PRRC. The accuracy of image classification was assessed by ground truthing and we found an 80% coincidence between the simulated results and the field observations. Then, the social survey was conducted using face to face interviews at 50 local households to collect data related to farming practices. Economic values of ecosystem services were obtained using the revised market methods by annual crop yields per unit area. The mean estimated value of ES provided through the PRRC was 1300 USD/ha/year (standard deviation of 600 USD/ha/year) which accounted for 38.1% and 59.4% of the averaged economic revenue and net benefit, respectively. The analysis of social survey data revealed the factors having the greatest effects on ecosystem services values were selling prices of prawn and farming experiences. Finally, results were synthesized with GIS to describe how ES values vary across the research area which facilitates effective communication of the importance of ES concepts to policy makers regarding land use planning and natural resources management decisions.
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We have used high heat flux plasma synthesis process to grow Co those for the morphology, stoichiometry and the local structure as a function of plasma current. We find that the nanoparticles produced by the thermal plasma method have different shapes and size distribution with the plasma current being a key parameter in controlling the formation of composition, morphology and crystalline structure. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements at Co K-edge have revealed formation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with the composition mainly depending on the arc current. While low plasma current appears to produce nanoparticles solely of CoO with a small amount of Co metal, the high plasma current tends to produce nanoparticles of CoO and Co3O4 oxides with increased amount of Co metal. The results are consistent with the morphological and structural analysis, showing nanoparticles of different shapes and size depending on the arc current.
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Whereas past research has examined the use of emotion regulation strategies in terms of individual differences or responses to experimental manipulations, this research takes a naturalistic and repeated-measures approach to examine suppression use in specific situations. Using an experience sampling design, we find evidence across two samples (total N=215) that (1) there was substantial within-person variation in suppression use, (2) the situational use of suppression was explained by situational differences in extraversion and social hierarchy, and (3) when used in contexts in which people felt they were low in social hierarchy, the negative relationship between suppression and well-being was attenuated. These findings suggest there are contexts in which suppression use may not be maladaptive, and demonstrate the benefits of studying emotion processes in real-life.
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The fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) combination assay, which can simultaneously detect the presence of anti-HIV antibody and HIV antigen, has been shown to shorten the window period in HIV diagnosis compared with the third-generation HIV antibody immunoassay. This study was aimed to determine the performance of HIV combination assays in Taiwan, where the HIV-1 seroprevalence is 0.007% and HIV-2 infection has never been reported.
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The effects of the BaO on the optical, physical and radiation shielding properties of the xBaO: 20ZnO: (80−x)B2O3, where x=5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol%, were investigated. The glasses were developed by the conventional melt-quenching technique at 1400°C with high purity chemicals of H3BO3, ZnO, and BaSO4. The optical transparency of the glasses indicated that the glasses samples were high, as observed by visual inspections. The mass attenuation coefficients (µm), the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and the effective electron densities (Ne) were increased with the increase of BaO concentrations, and the decrease of gamma-ray energy. The developed glass samples were investigated and compared with the shielding concretes and glasses in terms of half value layer (HVL). The overall results demonstrated that the developed glasses had good shielding properties, and highly practical potentials in the environmental friendly radiation shielding materials without an additional of Pb.
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