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Presenting the composite deck, which consists of concrete slab with profiled steel sheets fixed to the top layer of Double Layer Grid (DLG), proved its great efficiency in increasing the load carrying capacity for this type of structures. Earlier studies concluded that the application of the prescribed composite action had solved many problems facing the spread of DLG structures such as their prone to collapse in a progressive manner besides their suitability to be used only as roof covering structures. In addition, the application of the composite action introduced an economical solution due to considerable savings in steel material used in building the top layer of the DLG structures. However, openings in the deck are needed for architectural purposes such as passing service ducts, day-lighting panels or passing shear walls or continuous structural elements. Adding such openings in the deck affects the efficiency of the composite deck in carrying the assigned loads especially if the openings are being added after the construction is completed. The current research introduced experimental tests along with numerical investigation using ABAQUS software for composite deck space trusses with common cases of support patterns and different deck opening locations. The study shows the obvious effect of the existence of openings and their locations on the load carrying capacity and ductility of DLG space structures.
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Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have recently become one of the primary natural hazards in the Himalayas. There is therefore an urgent need to assess GLOF hazards in the region. Cirenmaco, a moraine-dammed lake located in the upstream portion of Zhangzangbo valley, Central Himalayas, has received public attention after its damaging 1981 outburst flood. Here, by combining remote sensing methods, bathymetric survey and 2D hydraulic modeling, we assessed the hazard posed by Cirenmaco in its current status. Inter-annual variation of Cirenmaco lake area indicates a rapid lake expansion from 0.10±0.08km2 in 1988 to 0.39±0.04km2 in 2013. Bathymetric survey shows the maximum water depth of the lake in 2012 was 115±2m and the lake volume was calculated to be 1.8×107m3. Field geomorphic analysis shows that Cirenmaco glacial lake is prone to GLOFs as mass movements and ice and snow avalanches can impact the lake and the melting of the dead ice in the moraine can lower the dam level. HEC-RAS 2D model was then used to simulate moraine dam failure of the Cirenmaco and assess GLOF impacts downstream. Reconstruction of Cirenmaco 1981 GLOF shows that HEC-RAS can produce reasonable flood extent and water depth, thus demonstrate its ability to effectively model complex GLOFs. GLOF modeling results presented can be used as a basis for the implementation of disaster prevention and mitigation measures. As a case study, this work shows how we can integrate different methods to GLOF hazard assessment.
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A secure job that pays above-poverty wages is a fundamental economic underpinning of a good life, but one that is absent or precarious for many workers in the rural United States. This paper examines the link between work and poverty in rural America, drawing comparisons over time and in relation to national averages and conditions in urban areas. Using data from the 2001 to 2014 Current Population Surveys, we address three analytic objectives. First, we track changes in the share of poor householders in work, and compare the prevalence of work between the rural and urban poor. Second, we estimate trends in the share of rural and urban workers who are poor, and highlight key social and demographic differentials. Third and finally, we estimate a series of logistic regression models to assess whether and to what extent rural-urban and temporal differences can be explained by the composition of the workforce and changes therein. Results show that an increasing share of the rural poor are out of work, and that the risk of poverty among those who are employed has also increased. While some of the longstanding rural disadvantage appears to have moderated in recent years, these changes are largely due to declining conditions in urban areas. Overall, our results support pessimistic conclusions about the economic status of rural America's workforce, and the ability of rural American's to meet the basic requisites of the good life through work.
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The ecological, economical, and agricultural benefits of accurate interpolation of spatial distribution patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) are well recognized. In the present study, different interpolation techniques in a geographical information system (GIS) environment are analyzed and compared for estimating the spatial variation of SOC at three different soil depths (0–20cm, 20–40cm and 40–100cm) in Medinipur Block, West Bengal, India. Stratified random samples of total 98 soils were collected from different landuse sites including agriculture, scrubland, forest, grassland, and fallow land of the study area. A portable global positioning system (GPS) was used to collect coordinates of each sample site. Five interpolation methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW), local polynomial interpolation (LPI), radial basis function (RBF), ordinary kriging (OK) and Empirical Bayes kriging (EBK) are used to generate spatial distribution of SOC. SOC is concentrated in forest land and less SOC is observed in bare land. The cross validation is applied to evaluate the accuracy of interpolation methods through coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results indicate that OK is superior method with the least RMSE and highest R2 value for interpolation of SOC spatial distribution.
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Moringa oleifera tree is referred to as a miracle tree due to its rich source of certain macro and micro nutrients of great importance in human nutrition. The chemical composition of the different parts of the Moringa tree may vary depending on cultivar and source. M. oleifera leaf, seed and flower have found numerous applications in food. In this review we firstly summarized the present knowledge on the use of M. oleifera as a food fortificant in amala (stiff dough), ogi (maize gruel), bread, biscuits, yoghurt, cheese and in making soups. The knowledge gap in the reported research was provided and possible future applications of M. oleifera in foods as well as the need for a well-structured and planned experimental design were suggested.
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This study aimed to explore fish consumption behavior and fish farming attitude of the Saudi households in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The survey was conducted in Sharurah province of Najran region. The data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire from 100 respondents residing in the province accordingly. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to see the significant and non-significant impacts of the two variables. The results showed that majority (37%) of the respondents fell in the age group of 25–34 and majority (35%) of the respondents have high level of education i.e. up to university level. The results also depicted that majority (31%) of the people consume fish and were aware of the nutritional value of fish in the study area. However, majority (85%) of the respondents were not satisfied by the fish price. The results further indicated that none of the respondents were engaged in fish farming activity i.e. they had no fish farms at their homes. Furthermore, majority (83%) respondents had no intentions to start fish farming at their homes in future. The study concludes that fish consumption and preference is high in the study area and people prefer fish more than chicken and meat for consumption purposes because of their knowledge regarding the nutritional value of fish; however, the age and educational level have negative opinion about fish price in the study area. The study recommends that proper policies should be formulated to educate people about fish farming (aquaponics) and its importance through fisheries extension services to enhance the interest of people in fish farming.
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Lightning stroke causes a current injection into transmission lines at the point of contact. The lightning performance can be difficult to understand without using simulation programs. PSCAD a powerful software was selected to develop the appropriate data required to investigate this phenomena.
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a legume and it has been used as a spice throughout the world to enhance the sensory quality of foods. It is known for its medicinal qualities such as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and immunological activities. Beside its medicinal value, it is also used as a part of various food product developments as food stabilizer, adhesive, and emulsifying agent. More importantly it is used for the development of healthy and nutritious extruded and bakery product. The present paper reviews about nutraceutical properties of fenugreek and its utilization in various product developments.
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Considerable attention is currently devoted to producing a cold-resistance pour point depressant (PPD) via the emulsification process. The aim of this study is to optimize the emulsification process parameter as to yield a stable emulsion. Shearing intensity, temperature and time of the emulsification were studied as the parameters to optimize the process. The influence of these parameters on the emulsion properties i.e. particle size, emulsion morphology and freeze–thaw stability was investigated. The particle size of the emulsion is reduced from 0.7103μm to 0.5185μm when shearing intensity increased and maximum emulsion stability was achieved by 120days at 5000rpm. It was also identified that the particle size and emulsion stability are smaller and longer respectively when the homogenization temperature increased. Emulsion produced at 80°C presented superior emulsion stability than other homogenization temperature. Prolonged homogenization time showed a positive effect on the emulsion stability from 20 to 30min. Morphological studies by microscopy illustrated that smaller and uniform emulsion particle was achieved. The results outlined that the optimum homogenization parameters are: stirring intensity, 5000rpm; homogenization temperature, 80°C and homogenization time, 30min.
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