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Completion of hand-written consent forms for surgical procedures may suffer from missing or inaccurate information, poor legibility and high variability. We audited the completion of hand-written consent forms and trialled a web-based application to generate modifiable, procedure-specific consent forms.
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Crop models are imperfect approximations to real world interactions between biotic and abiotic factors. In some situations, the uncertainties associated with choices in model structure, model inputs and parameters can exceed the spatiotemporal variability of simulated yields, thus limiting predictability. For Indian groundnut, we used the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM) with an existing framework to decompose uncertainty, to first understand how skill changes with added model complexity, and then to determine the relevant uncertainty sources in yield and other prognostic variables (total biomass, leaf area index and harvest index). We developed an ensemble of simulations by perturbing GLAM parameters using two different input meteorology datasets, and two model versions that differ in the complexity with which they account for assimilation. We found that added complexity improved model skill, as measured by changes in the root mean squared error (RMSE), by 5–10% in specific pockets of western, central and southern India, but that 85% of the groundnut growing area either did not show improved skill or showed decreased skill from such added complexity. Thus, adding complexity or using overly complex models at regional or global scales should be exercised with caution. Uncertainty analysis indicated that, in situations where soil and air moisture dynamics are the major determinants of productivity, predictability in yield is high. Where uncertainty for yield is high, the choice of weather input data was found critical for reducing uncertainty. However, for other prognostic variables (including leaf area index, total biomass and the harvest index) parametric uncertainty was generally the most important source, with a contribution of up to 90% in some cases, suggesting that regional-scale data additional to yield to constrain model parameters is needed. Our study provides further evidence that regional-scale studies should explicitly quantify multiple uncertainty sources.
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To explain how ethanol additive improves storage stability of pyrolysis bio-oil, comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) was applied on crude and ethanol-stabilized bio-oils before and after accelerated aging treatment for qualitative and quantitative analysis. About 2728, 2212, 2674, and 2781 peaks were identified in crude bio-oil before aging (CBA), crude bio-oil after aging (CAA), ethanol-stabilized bio-oil before aging (ESBA), and ethanol-stabilized bio-oil after aging (ESAA), respectively, which indicated that the addition of ethanol and accelerated aging treatment could both slightly change chemical composition of bio-oils. Many kinds of chemical compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, furans, furanones, ketones, phenols, aromatics, sugars, etc. were detected by GC × GC–TOFMS. For ethanol-stabilized bio-oil, total relative content and number of compounds were 50.78% ± 0.33% and 313 ± 8, respectively, after aging treatment while those values were 54.21% ± 0.39% and 363 ± 3, respectively, before aging treatment. On one hand, the reduced number of compounds after aging treatment may attribute to substantial organic chemical reactions, especially polymerization reactions, which could consume small molecular substances and generate macromolecular substances. Another reason for reduced number of compounds may be that some chemicals could undergo cracking and become gases. Analysis of two-dimensional plots for each classification group of compounds in bio-oils indicated that ethanol addition and accelerated aging treatment could both change chemical components of bio-oils to some extent. Specifically, adding ethanol into bio-oil could lead to slight decrease of aldehydes, which because of aldol reactions. Also, during accelerated aging period, many significant substances were changed such as decrease of acids, ketones, aldehydes, phenols, etc., and increase of some esters and aromatics, etc. This study may provide some technical guidance for further study on stable storage and industrial application of bio-oil.
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Salmonella spp. es un enteropatógeno que se transmite a los humanos a través de alimentos o agua contaminada. En 1997, el Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia inició el programa de vigilancia de enfermedad diarreica aguda y fiebre tifoidea, que incluye Salmonella spp. Este informe presenta los resultados fenotípicos y genotípicos de los aislamientos recuperados de 2005 a 2011 como parte de la vigilancia.
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Intra-individual variability (IIV) and psychological flexibility (PF) in affect both describe affective change over time (i.e., within-person variability). However, IIV and PF might differ from each other and predict different psychological and physical health outcomes. A large sample of adults (n=793) completed two assessments of daily stress, daily affect, and health over a 10-year interval in The National Study of Daily Experiences (an 8-day daily diary portion of the Midlife Development in the United States study). IIV and PF in affect were modestly reliable within and between assessments. IIV, operationalized as total variability, predicted worse psychological and physical health concurrently and prospectively. PF, operationalized as changes in dimensionality, predicted better psychological and physical health concurrently and prospectively. Other operationalizations of PF were not consistently related to health. Within-person variability in affect could therefore be adaptive or maladaptive depending on how it was defined.
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Infection with the fish borne liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is common in the Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the biliary tract and liver during chronic opisthorchiasis can be expected to improve protection against and management of complications of this disease. We hypothesize that infection with O. felineus associates with formation of methylglyoxal and carbonyl stress in the liver and hence here we investigated the glyoxalase system and the receptor for advanced glycated end products (RAGE) in the liver of hamsters infected with this liver fluke. Expression of mRNA encoding glyoxalase 1 decreased at 8weeks of the infection and catalytic activity as well decreased at 8 and 12weeks after infection, and the expression of the glyoxalase 2 decreased until 36week post-infection, which associated with the decreasing activity of the enzyme at 8 and 12weeks post-infection. Glutathione levels in infected livers had decreased at week 8, whereas up-regulation of RAGE at mRNA levels was seen for the extended duration of the experimental infection of the hamsters. This outcome supported the notion of hepatic dicarbonyl stress during chronic opisthorchiasis. The inhibition of the glyoxalase system and accumulation of methylglyoxal at the early stages of the infection may underpin development of insulin resistance during opisthorchiasis.
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Based on an efficient and bottom-up synthesis technique, Bismuth Selenide (Bi2Se3) nanoplatelets with uniform morphology and average thickness down to 3–7nm had been fabricated. Its nonlinear absorption property under high power excitation had been well characterized by our Z-scan measurement system at different illumination wavelengths, and we found that the as-fabricated bi-layer Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets show unique nonlinear optical responses, that is, with a saturable optical intensity of 32GW/cm2 (resp. 3.7MW/cm2 ) and a modulation depth of 88% (resp. 36%) at 800nm (resp. 1565nm). By implementing its saturable absorption property, we designed an optical saturable absorber device based on bilayer Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets through deposited them onto the end-facet of optical fiber. The as-fabricated optical saturable absorber device allows for the generation of mode-locking pulses at 1571nm with pulse duration of 579fs and a repetition rate of 12.54MHz at a pump power of 160mW. The method on fabricating ultrathin Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets may pave a new way to massive production of large-area topological insulator thin films that can be used in two-dimensional layered materials related photonics device.
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system with an unidentified etiology. We systematically reviewed the literature on the possible risk factors associated with MS disease onset, relapses and progression from 1960 to 2012 by accessing six databases and including relevant systematic reviews, meta-analyses, case-control or cohort studies. The focus was on identifying modifiable risk factors. Fifteen systematic reviews and 169 original articles were quality assessed and integrated into a descriptive review. Best evidence, which included one or more prospective studies, suggested that lower exposure to sunlight and/or lower serum vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of developing MS onset and subsequent relapses, but a similar quality of evidence was lacking for disease progression. Prospective studies indicated that cigarette smoking may increase the risk of MS as well as accelerate disease progression, but whether smoking altered the risk of a relapse was largely unknown. Infections were implicated in both risk of developing MS and relapses, but data for progression were lacking. Specifically, exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus, particularly if this manifested as infectious mononucleosis during adolescence, was associated with increased MS risk. Upper respiratory tract infections were most commonly associated with an increase in relapses. Relapse rates typically dropped during pregnancy, but there was no strong evidence to suggest that pregnancy itself altered the risk of MS or affected long-term progression. Emerging research with the greatest potential to impact public health was the suggestion that obesity during adolescence may increase the risk of MS; if confirmed, this would be of major significance.
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Indole-2-carboxylates are refluxed with hydrazine hydrate to form 5-substituted-3-phenylindole-2-carboxyhydrazides. These are again converted to corresponding indole-2-carboxyazides. Azides are further converted into carbamates and finally these carbamates are cyclized to form the respective substituted 6H, 11H-indolo [3,2-C] isoquinolin-2-ones (1a–c). These (1a–c) were reacted with phosphorus pentasulfide in refluxing pyridine to yield the respective thiones (2a–c). These thiones (2a–c) on reaction with chloroacetic acid and sodium acetate in acetic acid under refluxing temperature for 5h yielded isoquinoline-thioacetic acids (3a–c). Compounds (3a–c) on reaction with orthopheneylene diamine dihydrochloride in ethylene glycol at refluxing temperature yielded substituted indolo [3,2-C] isoquinolin-2′-yl sulfanyl methylene benzimidazoles (4a–c).
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We test whether dividend taxes affect corporate investments. We exploit Sweden's 2006 dividend tax cut of 10 percentage points for closely held corporations and 5 percentage points for widely held corporations. Using rich administrative panel data and triple-difference estimators, we find that this dividend tax cut does not affect aggregate investment but that it affects the allocation of corporate investment. Cash-constrained firms increase investment after the dividend tax cut relative to cash-rich firms. Reallocation is stronger among closely held firms that experience a larger tax cut. This result is explained by higher external equity in cash-constrained firms and by higher dividends in cash-rich firms after the tax cut.
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