Filter Results
463 results
Full title: Complex patterns of genome accessibility discriminate sites of PcG repression, H4K16 acetylation and replication initiation Histone modifications have been proposed to regulate gene expression in part by modulating DNA accessibility and higher-order chromatin structure. However, there is limited direct evidence to support structural differences between euchromatic and heterochromatic fibers in the nucleus. To ask how histone modifications relate to chromatin compaction, we measured DNA accessibility throughout the genome by combining M.SssI methylase footprinting with methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-footprint). In the Drosophila genome, we find that accessibility to DNA methylase is variable in a manner that relates to the differential distribution of active and repressive histone modifications. Active promoters are highly permissive to M.SssI activity, yet inactive chromosomal domains decorated with H3 lysine 27 trimethylation are least accessible providing in vivo evidence for Polycomb-mediated chromatin compaction. Conversely, DNA accessibility is increased at active chromosomal regions marked with H4 lysine 16 acetylation and at the dosage-compensated male X chromosome suggesting that Drosophila transcriptional dosage compensation is facilitated by more permissive chromatin structure. Interestingly early replicating chromosomal regions and sites of replication initiation show also higher accessibility linking temporal and spatial control of genome duplication to the structural organization of chromatin. In conclusion, using a novel protocol we generated a comprehensive view of DNA accessibility and uncover different levels of chromatin organization, which are delineated by distinct patterns of posttranslational histone modifications and replication. Keywords: cell type comparison, ChIP-chip, MeDIP-footprint, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq MeDIP-footprint and ChIP-chip: ChIP-chip was performed for H3K4me3, H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K27me3, and H3K9me2 in Kc cells. We measured DNA accessibility throughout the genome by combining M.SssI methylase footprinting with methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-footprint) in Kc and S2 cells. RNA-seq: cDNA from RNA from Drosophila Kc cells was sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. Reads were mapped and the abundance of all transcripts was determined. ChIP-seq: PSC ChIP from Drosophila Kc cells was sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing in three lanes. Reads were mapped and the binding profile of PSC was determined.
Data Types:
  • Text
  • File Set
Transcriptional dysregulation is an early feature of Huntington's disease (HD). We observed gene-specific changes in H3K4me3 at transcriptionally repressed promoters in R6/2 mouse and human HD brain. Genome-wide analysis showed a novel chromatin signature for this mark. Reducing the levels of the H3K4 demethylase SMCX/Jarid1c in primary neurons reversed down-regulation of key neuronal genes caused by mutant Huntingtin (Htt) expression. Finally, reduction of SMCX/Jarid1c in primary neurons from BACHD mice or the single Jarid1 in a Drosophila HD model was protective. Therefore, targeting this epigenetic signature may be an effective strategy to ameliorate the consequences of HD. ChIP-seq for H3K4me3 in wild type and R6/2 cortex and striatum at 8 and 12 weeks.
Data Types:
  • Text
DNA sequence and local chromatin landscape act jointly to determine transcription factor (TF) binding intensity profiles. To disentangle these influences, we developed an experimental approach, called protein/DNA binding and high-throughput sequencing (PB-seq), that allows the binding energy landscape to be characterized genome-wide in the absence of chromatin. We applied our methods to the Drosophila Heat Shock Factor (HSF), which inducibly binds a target DNA sequence element (HSE) following heat shock stress. PB-seq involves incubating sheared naked genomic DNA with recombinant HSF, partitioning the HSF-bound and HSF-free DNA, and then detecting HSF-bound DNA by high throughput sequencing. We compared PB-seq binding profiles with ones observed in vivo by ChIP-seq, and developed statistical models to predict the observed departures from idealized binding patterns based on covariates describing the local chromatin environment. We found that DNase I hypersensitivity and tetra-acetylation of H4 were the most influential covariates in predicting changes in HSF binding affinity. We also investigated the extent to which DNA accessibility, as measured by digital DNase I footprinting data, could be predicted from MNase-seq data and the ChIP-chip profiles for many histone modifications and TFs, and found GAGA element associated factor (GAF), tetra-acetylation of H4, and H4K16 acetylation to be the most predictive covariates. Lastly, we generated an unbiased model of HSF binding sequences, which revealed distinct biophysical properties of the HSF/HSE interaction and a previously unrecognized substructure within the HSE. These findings provide new insights into the interplay between the genomic sequence and the chromatin landscape in determining transcription factor binding intensity. We performed an in vitro binding experiment with purified HSF and naked, sheared genomic Drosophila S2 DNA (PB-seq), to derive an accurate set of potential HSF binding sites in the Drosophila genome. HSF-bound DNA was specifically eluted and detected by high throughput sequencing. Drosophila HSF was N-terminally tagged with glutathione s-transferase and a tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease cleavage site. The C-terminus of the recombinant HSF was fused to the 3xFLAG epitope. Recombinant HSF was purified from E. coli with glutathione resin as previously described (PMID: 20078429) , with the following modifications: HSF-3xFLAG elution was achieved by addition of 6xHistidine tagged TEV protease and TEV protease was cleared from the HSF preparation using a Nickel-NTA column. We incubated 600pM HSF and 2500ng genomic DNA (sonicated to 100-600bp fragment size as previously described in PMID: 20844575) in 1500μl final volume of 1xHSF binding buffer and let it come to equilibrium for an hour at room temperature. We added 20μl ANTI-FLAG M2 affinity gel for 10 minutes, washed 8 times with 1xHSF binding buffer to remove unbound DNA; 3xFLAG peptide was added to a final concentration of 200ng/μl to specifically elute HSF and HSF-bound DNA. The mock IP was done in the absence of recombinant HSF.
Data Types:
  • Text
Polycomb repressive complex-1 (PRC1) is essential for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. SCML2 is a mammalian homolog of Drosophila SCM, a Polycomb-group protein that associates with PRC1. Here, we show that SCML2A, an SCML2 isoform tightly associated to chromatin, contributes to PRC1 localization and also directly enforces repression of certain Polycomb target genes. SCML2A binds to PRC1 via its SPM domain and interacts with ncRNAs through a novel RNA-binding region (RBR). Targeting of SCML2A to chromatin involves the coordinated action of the MBT domains, RNA binding, and interaction with PRC1 through the SPM domain. Deletion of the RBR reduces the occupancy of SCML2A at target genes and overexpression of a mutant SCML2A lacking the RBR causes defects in PRC1 recruitment. These observations point to a role for ncRNAs in regulating SCML2 function and suggest that SCML2 participates in the epigenetic control of transcription directly and in cooperation with PRC1. This is the ChIP-seq part of the study
Data Types:
  • Text
Chromatin insulators are functionally conserved DNA-protein complexes that are situated throughout the genome and organize independent transcriptional domains.  Previous work implicated RNA as an important cofactor in chromatin insulator activity, although the mechanisms by which RNA affects insulator activity are not yet understood.  Here we identify the exosome, the highly conserved major cellular 3’ to 5’ RNA degradation machinery, as a physical interactor of CP190-dependent chromatin insulator complexes in Drosophila.  High resolution genome-wide profiling of exosome by ChIP-seq in two different embryonic cell lines reveals extensive and specific overlap with the CP190, BEAF-32, and CTCF insulator proteins.  Colocalization occurs mainly at promoters but also well-characterized boundary elements, such as scs, scs’, Mcp, and Fab-8.  Surprisingly, exosome associates primarily with promoters but not gene bodies, arguing against simple cotranscriptional recruitment to RNA substrates.  We find that exosome is recruited to chromatin in a transcription dependent manner, preferentially to highly transcribed genes.  Similar to insulator proteins, exosome is also significantly enriched at divergently transcribed promoters.  Directed ChIP of exosome in cell lines depleted of insulator proteins shows that CTCF is specifically required for exosome association at Mcp and Fab-8 but not other sites, suggesting that alternate mechanisms must also contribute to exosome chromatin recruitment.  Taken together, our results reveal a novel relationship between exosome and chromatin insulators throughout the genome. ChIP-seq of exosome components. RNA-seq after control and exosome subunit knockdown in Drosophila cell lines.
Data Types:
  • Text
  • File Set
We report chromatin-associated protein and RNA interactions of HP1a, indentified by BioTAP-XL mass spectrometry and sequencing. We identify an extensive list of both known and novel HP1a-interacting proteins from Drosophila S2 cells and from whole organisms across embryonic, larval and adult stages. BioTAP-XL protocol was used to identify HP1a interacting proteins through mass-spectrometry analysis. ChIP-seq-like pulldown/input samples were generated using BioTAP-XL to validate genomic distribution of the HP1a-BioTAP contructs, and the newly identified interacting proteins (CG8290 and CG3680); To examine the RNAs associated with the HP1a complexes, the RNA fraction of the BioTAP-XL pulldowns was analyzed using Illumina-based RNA-seq protocols, as well as Helicos direct RNA sequencing.
Data Types:
  • Sequencing Data
  • Text
The role of Polycomb group (PcG) was studied on RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) pausing phenomenon. Wild type and Polycomb mutant (esc) embryos were used for ChIP-Seq experiments using Pol II and histone methylation antibodies. Enhanced Pol II occupancy was observed for thousands of genes in esc mutant embryos, including genes not known to be bound by PRC2 or having H3K27me3 associated. Most of these genes exhibit a concomitant reduction in H3K27me3 and increase in H3K4me3 at promoter-proximal regions. Silent genes lacking promoter-associated paused Pol II in wild-type embryos are converted into “poised” genes with paused Pol II in esc mutants. We suggest that this conversion of silent genes into poised genes might render differentiated cell types susceptible to switches in identity in PcG mutants. ChIP-Seq data was generated for antibodies against Pol-II, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 in both wild type and esc mutant Drosophila embryos (0-2hr, 8-12hr, and 18-24hr embryos). In addition GRO-Seq data was generated for 18-24hr esc mutant embryos.
Data Types:
  • Text
In this experiment we examined higher order chromatin structure during early Drosophila melanogaster development. We performed in situ Hi-C for hand-sorted non-mitotic embryos at nuclear cycle number 12, 13 and 14, and for embryos at 3-4 hours post fertilisation. During this time in development, the zygotic genome is activated and zygotic transcription is taking place for the first time. To assess the impact of transcription on chromatin structure we injected the transcription inhibitors alpha-amanitin or triptolide before zygotic genome activation and performed Hi-C and ChIP-seq for RNA Pol II. Furthermore, we used Hi-C to study genome architecture in embryos lacking the transcription factor Zelda.
Data Types:
  • Text
The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes have been widely used as a model system for understanding transcriptional regulation due to unique aspects of their promoter structure, selectivity for either RNA Polymerase (Pol) II or III and a unique mechanism of termination that is tightly linked with the promoter. Recently, we identified the Little Elongation Complex (LEC) in Drosophila that is required for the expression of Pol II-transcribed snRNA genes. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism by which LEC specifically regulates Pol II-dependent snRNA gene transcription. We present genetic and molecular evidence from both Drosophila and mammals that LEC regulates both initiation and elongation stages of transcription of Pol II-transcribed snRNA genes. In human HCT116 cells we performed: ChIP-seq of ICE1, ICE2, ZC3H8, ELL, and AFF4; total RNA-seq following ICE1 knock-down and non-targeting (GFP) knock-down; ChIP-seq of ICE1 and Pol II following non-targetting (shGFP) and ICE1 knock-down (shICE1). In fly S2 cells we performed: Ice1 ChIP-seq following small hairpin knock-down of GFP (shGFP/non-targeting control) and Ice1 (knock-down of Ice1); ChIP-seq of Pol II following small hairpin knock-down of GFP (shGFP/non-targeting control), Ice1 (knock-down of Ice1), and Ell (knock-down of Ell).
Data Types:
  • Text
This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor SuHw from E16-24 generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study.
Data Types:
  • Text
11