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Argonaute proteins of the PIWI clade are central to transposon silencing in animal gonads. Their target specificity is defined by 22-30nt PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), which mostly originate from discrete genomic loci termed piRNA clusters. Here we show that the RDC complex composed of Rhino, Deadlock and Cutoff defines dual-strand piRNA clusters genome-wide in Drosophila ovaries. The RDC complex is anchored to H3K9me3-marked chromatin in part via Rhino’s chromo-domain. Depletion of Piwi results in loss of the RDC and small RNAs at euchromatic piRNA source loci, demonstrating a feedback loop between Piwi and genomic piRNA sources. Intriguingly, profiles of RNA Polymerase II occupancy, nascent transcription and steady-state RNA levels reveal that the RDC licenses non-canonical transcription of dual-stranded piRNA clusters. Likely, this process involves 5’end protection of nascent RNAs and subsequent suppression of transcription termination. Together, our data provide a comprehensive model for the regulation and evolution of piRNA clusters. This study aims at indentifying and characterizing genimc sources of piRNA percursour transcripts using genome-wide apporaches such as ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, smallRNA-seq and GRO-seq in adult Drosophila ovaries depleted for several factors implicated in piRNA cluster regulation
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Eukaryotic chromosomes are partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs) that are demarcated by distinct insulator-binding proteins (IBPs) in Drosophila. Whether IBPs regulate specific long-range contacts and how this may impact gene expression remains unclear. Here we identify ‘indirect peaks’ of multiple IBPs, that represent their distant sites of interactions through long-range contacts. Indirect peaks depend on protein-protein interactions among multiple IBPs and their common co-factors, including CP190, as confirmed by high-resolution analyses of long-range contacts. Mutant IBPs unable to interact with CP190 impair long-range contacts as well as the expression of hundreds of distant genes that are specifically flanked by indirect peaks. Regulation of distant genes strongly correlates with RNAPII pausing, highlighting how this key transcriptional stage may trap insulator-based long-range interactions. Our data illustrate how indirect peaks may decipher gene regulatory networks through specific long-range interactions. Binding profiles of Beaf-32 in Drosophila S2 cells by ChIP-Seq (Illumina)
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Eukaryotic chromosomes are partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs) that are demarcated by distinct insulator-binding proteins (IBPs) in Drosophila. Whether IBPs regulate specific long-range contacts and how this may impact gene expression remains unclear. Here we identify ‘indirect peaks’ of multiple IBPs, that represent their distant sites of interactions through long-range contacts. Indirect peaks depend on protein-protein interactions among multiple IBPs and their common co-factors, including CP190, as confirmed by high-resolution analyses of long-range contacts. Mutant IBPs unable to interact with CP190 impair long-range contacts as well as the expression of hundreds of distant genes that are specifically flanked by indirect peaks. Regulation of distant genes strongly correlates with RNAPII pausing, highlighting how this key transcriptional stage may trap insulator-based long-range interactions. Our data illustrate how indirect peaks may decipher gene regulatory networks through specific long-range interactions. Binding profiles of CP190 in stably transfected Drosophila S2 cell lines expressing in Wild-Type Beaf (Control) or Mutant Beaf by ChIP-Seq (Illumina)
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Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes situated throughout the genome that contribute to higher order organization and demarcation into distinct transcriptional domains. Mounting evidence in different species implicates RNA and RNA-binding proteins as regulators of chromatin insulator activities. Here we identify the Drosophila hnRNP M homolog Rumpelstiltskin (Rump) as an antagonist of gypsy chromatin insulator enhancer-blocking and barrier activities. Despite ubiquitous expression of Rump, improvement of barrier activity is detected only in tissue outside of the central nervous system (CNS) when Rump levels are reduced. Furthermore, rump mutants restore insulator complex localization in an otherwise compromised genetic background only in non-CNS tissues. Rump associates physically with core gypsy insulator proteins, and ChIP-Seq analysis of Rump demonstrates extensive colocalization with a subset of gypsy insulator sites across the genome. The genome-wide binding profile and tissue-specificity of Rump contrast with that of Shep, a recently identified RNA-binding protein that antagonizes gypsy insulator activity exclusively in the CNS. Our findings indicate parallel roles for RNA-binding proteins in mediating tissue-specific regulation of chromatin insulator activity. ChIP-seq of Rump, Mod(mdg4)2.2, Shep, Su(Hw), and CP190 in Drosophila Kc167 cells
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In many metazoans, germ cells are separated from somatic lineages early in development and maintain their identity throughout life. Here we show that a Polycomb group (PcG) component, Enhancer of Zeste [E(z)] H3K27me3-specific methyltransferase, maintains germline identity in Drosophila adult testes. We find excessive early-stage somatic gonadal cells in E(z) mutant testes, which originate from both over-proliferative cyst stem cells and germ cells turning on an early-stage somatic cell marker. Using complementary lineage-tracing experiments in E(z) mutant testes, a portion of excessive early-stage somatic gonadal cells are found to derive from early-stage germ cells, including germline stem cells. Interestingly, knocking down E(z) specifically in somatic cells caused this germline-to-soma change, suggesting a non-cell autonomous role of E(z) to antagonize somatic identity in germ cells. Using fly testis specifically expressing E(z) shmiR RNAi in germ cells by nos promoter driven GAL4>UAS system, ChIPseq with H3K27me3 antibody was performed, where H3K27me3 is only detected in somatic cells.
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modENCODE_submission_4109 This submission comes from a modENCODE project of Kevin White. For full list of modENCODE projects, see http://www.genome.gov/26524648 Project Goal: The White Lab is aiming to map the association of all the Transcription Factors (TF) on the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. One technique that we use for this purpose is chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) utilizing an Illumina next generation sequencing platform. The data generated by ChIP-seq experiments consist basically of a plot of signal intensity across the genome. The highest signals correspond to positions in the genome occupied by the tested TF. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf EXPERIMENT TYPE: CHIP-seq. BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: Strain: USP-GFP; Developmental Stage: L3; Genotype: PBac{y[+]-attP-3B}VK00033; Sex: Unknown; Transgene: USP genomic coding region; EXPERIMENTAL FACTORS: Developmental Stage L3; Target gene usp; Strain USP-GFP; Antibody GFP ab290 (target is Green Fluorescent Protein)
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Transcription factors, which regulate the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during organogenesis, often regulate multiple aspects of tissue morphogenesis, including cell-type specification, cell proliferation, cell death, cell polarity, cell shape, cell arrangement and cell migration. In this work, we describe a distinct role for Ribbon (Rib) in controlling cell shape changes during elongation of the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). Notably, the morphogenetic changes in rib mutants occurred without effects on general SG cell attributes such as specification, proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, the abnormal cell/organ shape in rib mutants occurred without compromising epithelial-specific morphological attributes such as apicobasal polarity and junctional integrity. To identify the genes regulated by Rib that control cell and organ shape, we performed ChIP-seq analysis in embryos driving rib expression specifically in the SGs. To learn if the Rib binding sites identified in the ChIP-seq analysis were linked to changes in gene expression through transcriptional activation, repression, or both, we performed microarray analysis comparing RNA samples from age-matched wild-type and rib null embryos. From the superposed ChIP-seq and microarray gene expression data, we identified 60 genomic sites of bound Rib most likely to regulate SG-specific gene expression. We confirmed several of the identified Rib targets by qRT-pCR and/or in situ hybridization. Our results indicate that Rib regulates cell shape change in the Drosophila salivary gland via a diverse array of targets through both transcriptional activation and repression. Furthermore, our results suggest that a critical component of the SG morphogenetic gene network involving Rib is its autoregulation. Three independent collections of stage 11 – 16 rib1/ribP7 embryos and three of wild-type embryos were used for hybridization to Drosophila Genome 2.0 Chips. Scanned intensity values were normalized using RMA (Partek software) and statistical analysis analyses were performed using the Spotfire software package (TIBCO). Target genes were identified as those that were upregulated/downregulated (1.5-fold change cutoff, P < 0.05) in rib1/ribP7 embryos when compared with Oregon R controls.
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Polycomb group proteins form two main complexes, PRC2 and PRC1, which generally coregulate their target genes. Here, we show that PRC1 components act as neoplastic tumor suppressors independently of PRC2 function. By mapping the distribution of PRC1 components and the histone H3K27me3 mark, we identify genes that acquire PRC1 and H3K27me3 in larvae, and a much larger set of genes bound by PRC1 in the absence of H3K27me3 in larval tissues. These genes massively outnumber canonical targets and they are preeminently involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, signaling and polarity. Mutation in PRC1 components specifically deregulates this set of genes, whereas canonical targets are derepressed in both PRC1 and PRC2 mutants. In human ES cells, PRC1 components colocalize with H3K27me3 like in Drosophila embryos, whereas they are selectively recruited to a large set of proliferation and signaling-associated genes in differentiated cell types, showing that the redeployment of PRC1 components during development is evolutionarily conserved. Comparative study of Polycomb group proteins and histon marks during development with ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq data in eye discs and wing discs (L3 stage) in Drosophila
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Expression profiling analysis: Transcriptome data from four biological replicates were generated using 8x15K Customized Drosophila Genome Oligo Microarrays (Agilent). Slide image data was quantified using Agilent's Feature Extraction software.... ChIP-Seq experiments were visualized as custom tracks using Integrative Genomics Viewer (Broad Institute). Total uniquely mapped tags were normalized to 10 million reads to generate tracks using HOMER.... Drosophila melanogaster
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In this study we provide evidence that Hsp90 binds chromatin at specific sites close to several TSS in Drosophila S2 cell line. In addition of finding a preference for stalled promoter regions of annotated genes, we uncover many intergenic Hsp90 binding sites coinciding with non-annotated transcription start sites. Interestingly, this set includes promoters for primary transcripts of microRNA genes, thereby expanding the scope of Hsp90 to transcriptional control of many genes. We finally conclude that Hsp90 contacts NelfE and thus regulates pol II pausing. Our Dataset comprises of 1 ChIP-seq sample using chromatin from S2 cells which was immunoprecipitated, using antibodies against Drosophila Hsp90. The two biological replicates are submitted along with the input replicates.
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