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Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that assemble in response to microbial and other danger signals and regulate the secretion of biologically active IL-1β and IL-18. Although they are important in protective immunity against bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, aberrant inflammasome activity promotes chronic inflammation associated with autoimmune disease. Inflammasomes have been described in many immune cells, but the majority of studies have focused on their activity in macrophages. Here we discuss an important role for mast cell-inflammasome activity in EAE, the rodent model of multiple sclerosis, a CNS demyelinating disease. We review our evidence that mast cells in the meninges, tissues that surround the brain and spinal cord, interact with infiltrating myelin-specific T cells in early disease. This interaction elicits IL-1β expression by mast cells, which in turn, promotes GM-CSF expression by T cells. In view of the essential role that GM-CSF plays in T cell encephalitogenicity, we propose this mast cell-T cell crosstalk in the meninges is critical for EAE disease development.
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El tratamiento de desensibilización y reprocesamiento por movimiento ocular (EMDR de sus siglas en inglés: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) es una terapia relativamente novedosa que de forma progresiva ha ido ganando popularidad en el tratamiento del trastorno por estrés postraumático. El objetivo de este trabajo es introducir el protocolo estándar EMDR, ofrecer una revisión de las hipótesis actuales sobre su mecanismo de acción y analizar la evidencia científica disponible sobre su eficacia clínica en pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de trastorno por estrés postraumático. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura publicada en las bases de datos PubMed y PsycINFO con los términos «eye movement desensitization and reprocessing» y «posttraumatic stress disorder» y sus contracciones en inglés «EMDR» y «PTSD». Se obtuvieron como resultado 15 ensayos controlados aleatorizados de elevada calidad metodológica que compararon EMDR con tratamientos no específicos, lista de espera y con tratamientos específicos. Los resultados de estos estudios permiten concluir que EMDR es una herramienta útil y basada en evidencia científica, tal y como refleja su reciente recomendación como tratamiento de elección en el trastorno por estrés postraumático por parte de distintas organizaciones internacionales de salud.
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This paper proposes an approach for landslide inventory mapping considering actual conditions in Indonesia. No satisfactory landslide database exists. What exists is inadequate, focusing, on data response, rather than on pre-disaster preparedness and planning. The humid tropical climate also leads a rapid vegetation growth so past landslides signatures are covered by vegetation or dismantled by erosion process. Generating landslide inventory using standard techniques still seems difficult. A catalog of disasters from local government (village level) was used as a basis of participatory landslide inventory mapping. Eyewitnesses or landslide disaster victims were asked to participate in the reconstruction of past landslides. Field investigation focusing on active participation from communities with the use of an innovative technology was used to verify the landslide events recorded in the disaster catalog. Statistical analysis was also used to obtain the necessary relationships between geometric measurements, including the height of the slope and length of run out, area and volume of displaced materials, the probability distributions of landslide area and volume, and mobilization rate. The result shows that run out distance is proportional to the height of the slope. The frequency distribution calculated by using non-cumulative distribution empirically exhibits a power law (fractal statistic) even though rollover can also be found in the dataset. This cannot be the result of the censoring effect or incompleteness of the data because the landslide inventory dataset can be classified as having complete data or nearly complete data. The so-called participatory landslide inventory mapping method is expected to solve the difficulties of landslide inventory mapping and can be applied to support pre-disaster planning and preparedness action to reduce the landslide disaster risk in Indonesia. It may also supplement the usually incomplete data in a typical landslide inventory.
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An evolution strategy algorithm belonging to the general field of genetic algorithms is developed to detect periodic orbits in dynamical problems. The algorithm is applied to the problem of motion of a particle under the gravitational field of a solid circular wire.
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The optimum implementation of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) is investigated. In order to study the feasibility of such system, a model for a large-scale TEG is designed and optimized to convert thermal energy into electricity. The mathematical formulation of the system comprising multiple TEG modules is modeled and simulated. It is assumed that the source of the thermal energy comes from concentrated solar receiver. Temperature solutions and heat transfer coefficients are obtained. The major geometrical and thermal parameters affecting the efficiency of the system are identified and optimized for best performance. Design aspects, such as the leg length, and heat transfer conditions have a significant impact on generated output power and efficiency.
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The development of residual stresses during fabrication is inevitable and often neglected with dire consequences during the service life of the fabricated components. In this work, the surface residual stress profile following the martensitic stainless steel (MSS) pipe welding was investigated with X-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed the presence of residual stresses equilibrated across the weldment zones. Tensile residual stress observed in weld metal was balanced by compressive residual stresses in the parent material on the opposing sides of weld metal.
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Fluorescence spectroscopy of a series of N2O2-donor naphthodiaza-crown macrocyclic ligands, L1-L4, in ethanol revealed that Cu(II) cation had remarkable fluorescence quenching effect during complex formation with L2 and L3, while Zn(II) displayed noticeable enhancement on the fluorescence emission of L1 and L4, respectively. Fluorescence quantum yields of Ln (L1-L4) as well as their complexes Ln/M (II) (M=Cu, and Zn) were found as 0.11–0.34, respectively. The complementary experiments on determination of the limit of detection indicated (LOD) that L2 and L3 were highly selective for detection of Cu(II) while L1 and L4 were selective towards Zn(II), respectively. Using Benesi–Hildebrand equation, 1:1 stoichiometry was established for these complexes and their binding constants (KBH) for metal cations were obtained by employing fluorescence spectrophotometery. Moreover, these chemosensor ligands demonstrated selective detection of the Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the mixtures of different metal cations in the solution. The single crystal studies revealed that Cu(II) nitrate prefers ion paring with [H2L2]2+ instead of complex formation which consequently gave rise to the observed quenching of the emission band. Different mechanisms were suggested for the perceived fluorescence events of these macrocyclic ligands in the presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II).
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We use data from two rounds of the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) to study the determinants of subjective well-being in China over the period 2005–2010 during which self-reported happiness scores show an increase across all income groups. Ordered probit regression analysis of well-being reveals large influence of gender, rural residency, and household income. After controlling for demographic attributes, health status, unemployment status, number of children, agricultural hukou (household registration identity) and educational attainment, household assets, the influence of past and future income, and province dummies, we find that women, urban residents, and people with higher income are happier in China. More schooling, better health, and being employed are positively and significantly correlated with well-being. Sub-sample analysis reveals that the rich only care about relative income whereas the effect of absolute income dominates in case of the poorer section. The influence of absolute income is larger among women compared to men and in turn explains why women, despite being poorer, are happier in China, conditional on socioeconomic differences. On the other hand, rural residents are poorer than urban residents so that conditional on having the same income, there is no rural–urban happiness gap. Our results suggest that while further decline in poverty will enhance well-being in China, policies that reduce rural–urban and gender inequalities are also likely to boost well-being.
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Using data from the 2010 China Family Panel Studies, this study investigates the association between commute time and subjective well-being in a sample of 16- to 65-year-old employees in urban China. We find evidence that a longer commute time is associated with lower levels of both life satisfaction and happiness, especially when the commute times are extreme (≥1 hour per day). A multiple mediation analysis further indicates that the relation between commute time and happiness is partially mediated by the time spent on daily activities, particularly sleep. We also calculate the amount of income necessary to compensate an employee's loss in well-being at approximately 82 yuan per hour of commute time, implying that in urban China the annual loss of well-being amounts to around 10 billion yuan.
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