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In this study we provide evidence that Hsp90 binds chromatin at specific sites close to several TSS in Drosophila S2 cell line. In addition of finding a preference for stalled promoter regions of annotated genes, we uncover many intergenic Hsp90 binding sites coinciding with non-annotated transcription start sites. Interestingly, this set includes promoters for primary transcripts of microRNA genes, thereby expanding the scope of Hsp90 to transcriptional control of many genes. We finally conclude that Hsp90 contacts NelfE and thus regulates pol II pausing. Our Dataset comprises of 1 ChIP-seq sample using chromatin from S2 cells which was immunoprecipitated, using antibodies against Drosophila Hsp90. The two biological replicates are submitted along with the input replicates.
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Broadly expressed transcriptions factors (TFs) control tissue-specific programs of gene expression through interactions with local TF networks. Prime examples are the circadian clock TFs CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC or BMAL1): while they control a core transcriptional circuit throughout animal bodies, downstream clock target genes and circadian physiology are tissue-specific. Here, we use ChIP-seq to determine the regulatory targets of Drosophila CLK and CYC, which we epitope-tagged by homologous recombination. Both TFs have distinct binding sites in heads versus bodies, suggesting that they directly control tissue-specific downstream target genes. Analysis of these context-specific binding sites revealed distinct sequence motifs for putative clock partner factors, including a motif for the GATA factor SERPENT (SRP). SRP indeed synergistically enhances CLK/CYC-mediated activity of a cis-regulatory region bound by CLK/CYC specifically in bodies. These results reveal how universal clock circuits can generate tissue-specific outputs and demonstrate an approach to dissect regulatory interactions more generally. We sequenced ChIP and input samples, as well as “mock” samples for which we performed ChIP with the V5 antibody from wildtype w- flies (not carrying the V5 tag) for two independent biological replicates each, summing to 24 libraries in total.
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Throughout Metazoa, developmental processes are controlled by a surprisingly limited number of conserved signaling pathways. Precisely how these signaling cassettes were assembled in early animal evolution remains poorly understood, as do the molecular transitions that potentiated the acquisition of their myriad developmental functions. Here we analyze the molecular evolution of the proto-oncogene YAP/Yorkie, a key effector of the Hippo signaling pathway that controls organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. Based on heterologous functional analysis of evolutionarily distant Yap/Yorkie orthologs, we demonstrate that a structurally distinct interaction interface between Yap/Yorkie and its partner TEAD/Scalloped became fixed in the eumetazoan common ancestor. We then combine transcriptional profiling of tissues expressing phylogenetically diverse forms of Yap/Yorkie with ChIP-seq validation in order to identify a common downstream gene expression program underlying the control of tissue growth in Drosophila. Intriguingly, a subset of the newly-identified Yorkie target genes are also induced by Yap in mammalian tissues, thus revealing a conserved Yap-dependent gene expression signature likely to mediate organ size control throughout bilaterian animals. Combined, these experiments provide new mechanistic insights while revealing the ancient evolutionary history of Hippo signaling. We sought to define the downstream target genes of selected Yap variants by performing RNA sequencing analysis (RNA-seq) on total RNA isolated from GMR-Gal4>Yap eye discs. Transcriptional profiles were generated in triplicate from eye imaginal disks with either endogenous Yki, or GMR-Gal4 over-expressed Yki, Trichoplax Yap, Monosiga Yap, or Monisiga Yap+TEAD domain, using deep sequencing via Illumina Hi Seq.
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Drosophila X chromosomes are subject to dosage compensation in males and are known to have a specialized chromatin structure in the male soma. We are interested in how specific chromatin structure change contributes to X chromosome hyperactivity and dosage compensation. We have conducted a global analysis of localize two dosage compensation complex dependent histone marks H4AcK16 and H3PS10 and one dosage compensation complex independent histone mark H3diMeK4 in the genome, especially on X chromosome by ChIP-chip approach in both male and female adult flies. We also probed general genomewide chromatin structure by deep DNA sequencing of sheared ChIP input DNA from male and female adult flies. Chromatin immunoprecipitations were performed in 5-7 day aged adult male and female flies with three histone modification antibodies. ChIP enriched DNA and input DNA was labeled by Cy3 or Cy5 dye separately and hybridized simultaneously to the Drosophila FlyGEM arrays. At least two biological replicates were performed for each antibody and sex. DNA-seq (NIDDK-Drosophila-Illumina-DNASeq) were performed on ChIP-input sheared DNA to check the general chromatin structure of different chromosome.
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ChIRP-Seq Reveals roX2 Binding Sites on X Chromosome (A) roX2 colocalizes with MSL complex and CES. (B) 308 roX2 binding sites are all on the X chromosome, indicating an FDR ∼0. (C) roX2 ChIRP-seq is overall highly correlated to MSL3 ChIP-seq (R = 0.77 for log2 intensity > 10). (D) roX2 binds across X-linked gene bodies with bias toward the 3′ end, in a manner similar to MSL3 but with higher dynamic range. ChIRP-seq or ChIP-seq signal intensity for all bound genes on X or genes on chromosome 2L were averaged and aligned to gene start and end annotations. (E) roX2 binding sites are strongly enriched for a sequence motif that is nearly identical to MSL3 motif.
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ChIP-seq. analysis of TCam-2 16 h after 10 nanomolar Romidepsin application. DMSO treated cells were used as controls. For ChIP, an antibody against histone H3 pan-acetylation was used. These data are part of the article 'The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Romidepsin Efficiently Targets Cisplatin-resistant Germ Cell Cancer Cells via Downregulation of the SWI/SNF-Complex Member ARID1A' (Nettersheim et al., 2016). TCam-2 cells treated for 16h with romidepsin or the solvent were fixed by formaldehyde solution and further processed by Active Motif, including DNA shearing by sonication, chromatin-immunoprecipitaion, library generation and sequencing (NextSeq 500, Illumina). Pooled input DNA of each sample including spike-in Drosophila DNA was used as controls and for normalization. The 75-nt sequence reads were mapped against the genome using BWA algorithm. Duplicate reads were removed. Only peaks that align with no more than 2 mismatches and map uniquely to the genome were used for further analysis. Intervals / peaks were identified by the MACS peak finding algorithm (cutoff p-value 1x10-7) including ENCODE blacklist filtering
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A large fraction of our genome consists of mobile genetic elements. Governing transposons in germ cells is critically important, and failure to do so compromises genome integrity, leading to sterility. In animals, the piRNA pathway is the key to transposon constraint, yet the precise molecular details of how piRNAs are formed and how the pathway represses mobile elements remain poorly understood. In an effort to identify general requirements for transposon control and novel components of the piRNA pathway, we carried out a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila ovarian somatic sheet cells. We identified and validated 87 genes necessary for transposon silencing. Among these were several novel piRNA biogenesis factors. We also found CG3893 (asterix) to be essential for transposon silencing, most likely by contributing to the effector step of transcriptional repression. Asterix loss leads to decreases in H3K9me3 marks on certain transposons but has no effect on piRNA levels. We sequenced small RNAs, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq from either tj-Gal4 driven hpRNA knockdown flies or P-element insertion flies
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modENCODE_submission_5596 This submission comes from a modENCODE project of Gary Karpen. For full list of modENCODE projects, see http://www.genome.gov/26524648 Project Goal: The goal of these experiments are to a) validate/confirm the locations of 125 chromosomal proteins across the Drosophila melanogaster genome and b) evaluate their biological significance by assaying the impact of depletion on other proteins/marks. We are using RNAi to deplete individual non-histone chromosomal proteins in Drosophila BG3 and S2 tissue culture cells, followed by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP) assayed on genomic tiling arrays. Comparison of a protein factor's binding profiles before and after depletion will increase the confidence of our predictions. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf EXPERIMENT TYPE: CHIP-seq. BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: Cell Line: S2-DRSC; Tissue: embryo-derived cell-line; Developmental Stage: late embryonic stage; Sex: Male; EXPERIMENTAL FACTORS: Cell Line S2-DRSC; Antibody H2AV 9751 (target is H2AV); dsRNA (RNAi_reagent) Fly_GFP_RNAi_2&oldid=76949
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modENCODE_submission_5595 This submission comes from a modENCODE project of Gary Karpen. For full list of modENCODE projects, see http://www.genome.gov/26524648 Project Goal: The goal of these experiments are to a) validate/confirm the locations of 125 chromosomal proteins across the Drosophila melanogaster genome and b) evaluate their biological significance by assaying the impact of depletion on other proteins/marks. We are using RNAi to deplete individual non-histone chromosomal proteins in Drosophila BG3 and S2 tissue culture cells, followed by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP) assayed on genomic tiling arrays. Comparison of a protein factor's binding profiles before and after depletion will increase the confidence of our predictions. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf EXPERIMENT TYPE: CHIP-seq. BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: Cell Line: S2-DRSC; Tissue: embryo-derived cell-line; Developmental Stage: late embryonic stage; Sex: Male; EXPERIMENTAL FACTORS: Cell Line S2-DRSC; Antibody H2AV 9751 (target is H2AV); dsRNA (RNAi_reagent) CG5499_RNAi_2&oldid=76948
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modENCODE_submission_4080 This submission comes from a modENCODE project of Kevin White. For full list of modENCODE projects, see http://www.genome.gov/26524648 Project Goal: The White Lab is aiming to map the association of all the Transcription Factors (TF) on the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. One technique that we use for this purpose is chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) utilizing an Illumina next generation sequencing platform. The data generated by ChIP-seq experiments consist basically of a plot of signal intensity across the genome. The highest signals correspond to positions in the genome occupied by the tested TF. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf EXPERIMENT TYPE: CHIP-seq. BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: Strain: Y cn bw sp; Developmental Stage: White Prepupae (WPP); Genotype: y[1] oc[R3.2]; Gr22b[1] Gr22d[1] cn[1] CG33964[R4.2] bw[1] sp[1]; LysC[1] lab[R4.2] MstProx[1] GstD5[1] Rh6[1]; EXPERIMENTAL FACTORS: Developmental Stage White Prepupae (WPP); Strain Y cn bw sp; Antibody KW3-CG8478-D1 (target is CG8478)
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