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Comparison of Ebf2-expressing bone marrow mesenchymal cells from Ebf2-GFP heterozgous and Ebf2-GFP homozygous (=knock-out) mice
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Pancreas and spleen were microdissected from wild type (C57B6/SV129 background) E14.5 embryos and P0 newborn pups. Pools of 30-60 tissues were used. Tissues were digested for 1 hour at 37°C in HBSS/0.1% collagenase A/20 µg/ml DNase I, followed by dissociation of the cell clusters into single cells using a non-enzymatic dissociation medium (Sigma). Single cell suspensions were blocked with mouse IgGs and anti-CD16/32 Abs and immunostained with biotin-anti-CD11b (Biolegend) and RPE-conjugated goat anti-CCR2 (R&D Systems), followed by Cy5.5 conjugated streptavidin. CD11b+CCR2+ cell were then isolated by FACS sorting. mRNA from purified cells was prepared using the RNAeasy kit (Qiagen) and run on a MouseWG-6 v2.0 Expression BeadChip.
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In this experiment the transcriptome reprogramming in barley during host and nonhost interaction with Magnaporthe sp. was analyzed in a time-series approach. Seven days old barley plants of cv. Vada were mock-inoculated or inoculated with adapted Magnaporthe isolate TH6772 from rice or non-adapted isolate CD180 from Pennisetum. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours the abaxial epidermis was sampled. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Plant Mini Kit with on-column DNase digestion (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), and hybridized to Agilent 44k oligonucleotide arrays.
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In this experiment the transcriptome reprogramming in barley during host and nonhost interaction with Puccinia sp. was analyzed in a time-series approach. Ten days old barley plants of cv. Vada were mock-inoculated or inoculated with P. hordei (Ph), 1.2.1 isolate, or P. triticina (Pt), BRW96258 isolate. After 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours first leaves were sampled. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), the Ambion TURBO DNA-free DNase Kit was used for DNA elimination, and RNA was hybridized to Agilent 44k oligonucleotide arrays.
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Breast cancer was one of the first cancer types where molecular subtyping led to explanation of interpersonal heterogeneity and resulted in improvement of treatment regimen. Several multigene classifiers have been developed and in particular those defining molecular signatures of early breast cancers possess significant prognostic information. Hence since 2014, molecular subtyping of primary breast cancers was implemented as a part of routine diagnostics with direct impact of therapy assignment. In this study, we evaluate direct and potential benefits of molecular subtyping in low-risk breast cancers as well as present the advantages of a robust molecular signature in regard to patient work-up among high-risk breast cancers.
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Primary intestinal epithelial cells were isolated from the proximal part of the small intestine from either E16.5 foetal tissue or adult tissue and embedded in matrigel for culturing in in advanced F12/DMEM supplemented with EGF, R-spondin and Noggin. RNA was extracted from cultures established from independent animals and subjected to expression profiling.
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While the toxicity of the main constituents of electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids, nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), has been assessed individually in separate studies, limited data on the inhalation toxicity of them is available when in mixtures. In this 90-day subchronic inhalation study, Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed to filtered air, nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG mixtures, with and without nicotine. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared with vehicle exposure, the PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity. Addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects observed in previous studies, including up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1/Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, such as reduced serum lipid concentrations and expression changes of hepatic metabolic enzymes. No toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520mg PG/L + 1.890mg VG/L) were observed, and no adverse effects for PG/VG/nicotine were observed up to 438/544/6.7mg/kg/day. This study demonstrates how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, even in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine.
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The main constituents of electronic cigarette liquids are nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), together with distilled water and flavors. To assess the toxicity of PG/VG mixtures with and without nicotine as basic components of liquids used in e-cigarettes, a 90-day rat inhalation study according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413 was conducted. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were nose-only exposed, 6?h/day, 5 days/week to filtered air, or nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG (0.174 mg PG/l + 0.210 mg VG/l; 0.520 mg PG/l + 0.630 mg VG/l; 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) � with (test item) and without (reference item) 23 �g nicotine/L. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared to vehicle exposure, the tested PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity, both for the standard toxicological endpoints (e.g., histopathology, clinical chemistry) and the systems toxicological analyses (transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics). The addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols (23 �g/l) resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects in previous studies. These included up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1 and Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, e.g., reduction in serum lipid concentrations and changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in the liver. Signs of a generalized stress response to nicotine exposure such as decreased thymus weights were observed; and likely, a subset of the observed metabolic alterations was interlinked with this generalized stress response. Under the conditions of this 90-day SD rat inhalation study, no toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) were observed, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for PG/VG/nicotine was determined to be 438/544/6.7 mg/kg/day. Further the study demonstrated how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, also in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine.
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The main constituents of electronic cigarette liquids are nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), together with distilled water and flavors. To assess the toxicity of PG/VG mixtures with and without nicotine as basic components of liquids used in e-cigarettes, a 90-day rat inhalation study according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413 was conducted. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were nose-only exposed, 6?h/day, 5 days/week to filtered air, or nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG (0.174 mg PG/l + 0.210 mg VG/l; 0.520 mg PG/l + 0.630 mg VG/l; 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) � with (test item) and without (reference item) 23 �g nicotine/L. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared to vehicle exposure, the tested PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity, both for the standard toxicological endpoints (e.g., histopathology, clinical chemistry) and the systems toxicological analyses (transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics). The addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols (23 �g/l) resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects in previous studies. These included up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1 and Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, e.g., reduction in serum lipid concentrations and changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in the liver. Signs of a generalized stress response to nicotine exposure such as decreased thymus weights were observed; and likely, a subset of the observed metabolic alterations was interlinked with this generalized stress response. Under the conditions of this 90-day SD rat inhalation study, no toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) were observed, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for PG/VG/nicotine was determined to be 438/544/6.7 mg/kg/day. Further the study demonstrated how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, also in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine.
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The molecular mechanisms by which individuals subjected to environmental heat stress either adapt or develop heat-related complications are not well understood. We analysed the changes in blood mononuclear gene expression patterns in human volunteers exposed to an extreme heat in a sauna (temperature of 78 ± 6 °C).
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