Filter Results
27 results
Place cells of the rodent hippocampus fire action potentials when the animal traverses a particular spatial location in any environment. Therefore for any given trajectory one observes a repeatable sequence of place cell activations. When the animal is quiescent or sleeping, one can observe similar sequences of activation known as replay, which underlie the process of memory consolidation. However, it remains unclear how replay is generated. Here we show how a temporally asymmetric plasticity rule during spatial exploration gives rise to spontaneous replay in a model network by shaping the recurrent connectivity to reflect the topology of the learned environment. Crucially, the rate of this encoding is strongly modulated by ongoing rhythms. Oscillations in the theta range optimize learning by generating repeated pre-post pairings on a time-scale commensurate with the window for plasticity, while lower and higher frequencies generate learning rates which are lower by orders of magnitude.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Software/Code
  • Dataset
The frequency and magnitude of extreme climate events are increasing with global change, yet we lack predictions and empirical evidence for the ability of wild populations to persist and adapt in response to these events. Here, we used Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection to evaluate the adaptive potential of Lasthenia fremontii, an herbaceous winter annual that is endemic to seasonally flooded wetlands in California, to alternative flooding regimes that occur during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The results indicate that populations may exhibit greater adaptive potential in response to dry years than wet years, and that the relative performance of populations will change across climate scenarios. More generally, our findings show that extreme climate events can substantially change the potential for populations to adapt to climate change by modulating the expression of standing genetic variation and mean fitness.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
Background: Duplications of 15q11.2-q13.1 (Dup15q syndrome) are highly penetrant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A distinct electrophysiological (EEG) pattern characterized by excessive activity in the beta band has been noted in clinical reports. We asked whether EEG power in the beta band, as well as in other frequency bands, distinguished children with Dup15q syndrome from those with non-syndromic ASD and then examined the clinical correlates of this electrophysiological biomarker in Dup15q syndrome. Methods: In the first study, we recorded spontaneous EEG from children with Dup15q syndrome (n = 11), age-and-IQ-matched children with ASD (n = 10) and age-matched typically developing (TD) children (n = 9) and computed relative power in 6 frequency bands for 9 regions of interest (ROIs). Group comparisons were made using a repeated measures analysis of variance. In the second study, we recorded spontaneous EEG from a larger cohort of individuals with Dup15q syndrome (n = 27) across two sites and examined age, epilepsy, and duplication type as predictors of beta power using simple linear regressions. Results: Spontaneous beta1 (12 – 20 Hz) and beta2 (20 – 30 Hz) power were significantly higher in Dup15q syndrome compared with both comparison groups, while delta (1 – 4 Hz) was significantly lower than both comparison groups. Effect sizes in all three frequency bands were large (|d| > 1). In the second study, we found that beta2 power was significantly related to epilepsy diagnosis in Dup15q syndrome. Conclusions: Here, we have identified an electrophysiological biomarker of Dup15q syndrome that may facilitate clinical stratification, treatment monitoring, and measurement of target engagement for future clinical trials. Future work will investigate the genetic and neural underpinnings of this electrophysiological signature as well as the functional consequences of excessive beta oscillations in Dup15q syndrome.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
What determines how we move in the world? Motor neuroscience often focusses either on intrinsic rhythmical properties of motor circuits or extrinsic sensorimotor feedback loops. Here we show that the interplay of both intrinsic and extrinsic dynamics is required to explain the intermittency observed in continuous tracking movements. Using spatiotemporal perturbations in humans, we demonstrate that apparently discrete submovements made 2-3 times per second reflect constructive interference between motor errors and continuous feedback corrections that are filtered by intrinsic circuitry in the motor system. Local field potentials in monkey motor cortex revealed characteristic signatures of a Kalman filter, giving rise to both low-frequency cortical cycles during movement, and delta oscillations during sleep. We interpret these results within the framework of optimal feedback control, and suggest that the intrinsic rhythmicity of motor cortical networks reflects an internal model of external dynamics, which is used for state estimation during feedback-guided movement.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Software/Code
  • Dataset
The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) frontal detection method, introduced in Chapman (2014). This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded absolute dynamic topography (ADT) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming frontal occurrence frequency maps and then approximating these occurrence-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (‘splitting’) downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (‘merging’) in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. These splitting/merging events are related to changes in the underlying frontal structure whereby regions of high frontal occurrence cross or spread over streamfunction contours. In contrast to the number of fronts, frontal meandering remains relatively constant throughout the Southern Ocean. Little to no migration of the fronts over the 1993-2014 time period is found, and there is only weak sensitivity of frontal positions to atmospheric forcing related to the Southern Annular Mode or the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Finally, the implications of these results for the study of cross-stream tracer transport is discussed.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
Mounting evidence has indicated that engaging in extra-pair copulations (EPCs) might be maladaptive or detrimental to females. It is unclear why such non-adaptive female behavior evolves. In this study, we test two hypotheses about the evolution of female EPC behavior using population genetic models. First, we find that both male preference for allocating extra-effort to seek EPCs and female pursuit behavior without costs can be maintained and remain polymorphic in a population via frequency dependent selection. However, both behaviors cannot evolve when females with pursuit behavior suffer from a decline in male parental care. Second, we present another novel way in which female pursuit behavior can evolve; indirect selection can act on this behavior through a ratchet-like mechanism involving oscillating linkage disequilibria between the target EPC pursuit locus and two other loci determining male mate choice and a female sexual signal. Although the overall positive force of such indirect selection is relatively weak, our results suggest that it may still play a role in promoting the evolution of female EPC behavior when this behavior is non-adaptive (i.e., it is neutral) or only somewhat maladaptive (e.g., males only occasionally lower parental care when their mates pursue EPCs).
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
Ecological networks have been used to represent interactions between species as fixed linkages despite that populations naturally oscillate over time and space. As such, the influence of the persistence of linkages between species in communities has been overlooked. Unfortunately, empirical analysis of the temporal variation of trophic networks is constrained by the lack of data with high spatial, temporal and taxonomic resolution. Here, we evaluate the spatiotemporal variability of multiple consumer-resource interactions to quantify the relative dominance of highly persistent versus poorly persistent interactions, the commonness of the interaction persistence patterns, and the effect of biotic and abiotic conditions on these patterns. We took advantage of a dataset from four large marine intertidal rocky-shore networks monitored seasonally for three years along 1000 km of the coast of northern Chile. Our results showed that the communities were characterized by few persistent interactions and a large number of transient trophic interactions, which was well described by a common exponential decay in the rank-frequency relationship of consumer–resource interactions despite dissimilarities in environmental conditions among sites. These results were independent of the degree of consumer–resource co-occurrence. Our results stress the need for more long-term studies that evaluate the temporal variability of ecological networks.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
Ecological networks have been used to represent interactions between species as fixed linkages despite that populations naturally oscillate over time and space. As such, the influence of the persistence of linkages between species in communities has been overlooked. Unfortunately, empirical analysis of the temporal variation of trophic networks is constrained by the lack of data with high spatial, temporal and taxonomic resolution. Here, we evaluate the spatiotemporal variability of multiple consumer-resource interactions to quantify the relative dominance of highly persistent versus poorly persistent interactions, the commonness of the interaction persistence patterns, and the effect of biotic and abiotic conditions on these patterns. We took advantage of a dataset from four large marine intertidal rocky-shore networks monitored seasonally for three years along 1000 km of the coast of northern Chile. Our results showed that the communities were characterized by few persistent interactions and a large number of transient trophic interactions, which was well described by a common exponential decay in the rank-frequency relationship of consumer–resource interactions despite dissimilarities in environmental conditions among sites. These results were independent of the degree of consumer–resource co-occurrence. Our results stress the need for more long-term studies that evaluate the temporal variability of ecological networks.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
low-frequency oscillations
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
Locations of populations of Dendrolimus punctatus sampled, including the sample sizes (N), frequencies of COI and Ribotypes per population (Nh), and estimates of haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) for each populations.
Data Types:
  • Other
  • Dataset
2