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Women are dramatically underrepresented in legislative bodies, and most scholars agree that the greatest limiting factor is the lack of female candidates (supply). However, voters’ subconscious biases (demand) may also play a role, particularly among conservatives. We designed an original field experiment to test whether it is possible to increase women’s electoral success through political party leaders’ efforts to exogenously shock the supply of female candidates and/or voter demand for female representatives. The key experimental treatments involved messages from a state Republican Party chair to the leaders of 1,842 precinct-level caucus meetings. We find that party leaders’ efforts to stoke both supply and demand (and especially both together) increase the number of women elected as delegates to the statewide nominating convention. We then replicate this finding with a national sample of validated Republican primary election voters (N=2,897) using a vignette survey experiment. Our results suggest that simple interventions from party leaders can affect the behavior of candidates and voters and ultimately lead to a substantial increase in women’s electoral success.
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Africa currently has the lowest childhood vaccination coverage worldwide. If the full benefits of childhood vaccination programmes are to be enjoyed in sub-Saharan Africa, all countries need to improve on delivery of vaccines to achieve and sustain high coverage. In this paper, we reviewed trends in vaccination coverage, dropouts rates and explored the country-specific predictors of a fully immunised child (FIC) in Western Africa. We utilized datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys available for Benin, Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo to obtain prevalence estimates of vaccination for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, Polio, Measles and Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccines in children aged 12 – 23 months. We also calculated the DPT1-to-DPT3 and DPT1-to-Measles dropouts, and the proportions of the fully immunised child (FIC). Factors predictive of FIC within each country were explored using Chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression models.
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This document contains replication material and supplementary analyses for "Citizenship Regimes and the Politicization of Immigrant Groups"
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Computer code and supporting data files to reproduce figures in the manuscript.
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This is the supplementary material (revised version) of DCLN paper published in proceedings of IJCNN 2015. The original source is available at "https://sourceforge.net/projects/dcln/".
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Immersive stereoscopic footage of a Coordinate Response Measure (CRM) recorded from two actors. The audio-visual recorded corpus consists of 8 CALLs and 32 COMMANDs per actor. The CALLs and COMMANDs are to be combined at rendering time into full sentences that always follow the same structure: “ready CALL go to COMMAND now ”. The COMMANDs consists of one in four colors (blue, green, red or white) followed by one in eight numbers (1 to 8). This generates a full combinatorial of 256 individual sentences when combined with one of the 8 CALLS (arrow, baron, charlie, eagle, hopper, laker, ringo, tiger). Additionally the dataset also includes the UV positions to texturize the semi-spheres at the rendering time. These have been calculated from the intrinsic and extrinsic calibration parameters of the cameras to facilitate the correct rendering of the video footage. Our system for recording the actors consists of a custom wide-angle stereo camera system made of two Grasshopper 3 cameras with fisheye Fujinon lenses (2.7mm focal length) reaching 185 degrees of Field of View (FoV). The cameras were mounted parallel to each other and separated by 65 mm distance (average human interpupillary distance39) to provide stereoscopic capturing. The video is encoded in H264 format reaching 28-30 frames per second encoding speed at 1600x1080 resolution per camera/eye. The audio was recorded through a near range microphone at a 44kHz sampling rate and 99kbps and both the audio and video are synchronized within 10ms range and saved in mp4 format. The recording room was equipped for professional recording with monobloc LED lighting and chromakey screen. The actor sat at 1 meter distance from the camera recording setup and read the corpus sentences when presented on the screen behind the cameras. The actors were recorded separately in two sessions, seating each at 30 degrees from the bisection, and their videos can be synthetically attached at the rendering time. In the post processing the audio was equalized for all words, and the video was stitched to combine the actors and generate the full the corpus. Sentences were band passed at 80Hz to 16kHz. The corpus sentences are temporally aligned within the range of 64ms in our case, which is below the described 200ms to be perceived. So two or more CRMs can be played synchronously generating an overlap.
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In recent years, Americans have become more affectively polarized: that is, ordinary Democrats and Republicans increasingly dislike and distrust members of the opposing party. Such polarization is normatively troubling, as it exacerbates gridlock and dissensus in Washington. Given these negative consequences, I investigate whether it is possible to ameliorate this partisan discord. Building on the Common Ingroup Identity Model from social psychology, I show that by heightening subjects’ sense of American national identity, they come to see members of the opposing party as fellow Americans, rather than rival partisans. As a result, they like the opposing party more, thereby reducing affective polarization. Using several original experiments, as well as a natural experiment surrounding the July 4th holiday and the 2008 Summer Olympics, I find strong support for my argument. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for efforts to reduce polarization more generally.
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Review of Economics and Statistics: Forthcoming
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Together, the datasets and .do files replicate Tables 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 from "The long and short of it: The unpredictability of late deciding voters." For a description of the variables used in each model, see the paper and .do file.
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Open Source indicators Handbook and validated Ground Truth. Please refer to the Handbook for a description of the Program.
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