Contributors:Michael Fettweis, Jaak Monbaliu, Matthias Baeye, Bouchra Nechad, Dries Van den Eynde
(a) Frequency of weather types over seasons. (b) Frequency of cloud-free data in the Southern Bight (51.50°N,3.10°E), along the Dutch coast (53.30°N,4.40°E), in the German Bight (54.15°N,7.50°E) and in the central North Sea (55.00°N,4.00°E). (c) Mean significant wave height at three stations.
... (a) Frequency (%) of weather types during winters of 2002–2009, winter of 2005–2006 (NAOWI− 2006) and winter 2006–2007 (NAOWI+ 2007). Mean significant wave height at (b) Bol van Heist, (c) Eierlandse Gat and (d) Helgoland for the same periods.
Oscillatory network inhibition in the rat BL. (A) Example traces of the network inhibition-positive (1) and -negative (2) cells in the BL. The network inhibition is seen as periodical bursts of IPSC (upward deflections). (B) An example power spectrum of the sample record in (A1). The area under the curve (power) between 0.1 and 3.0 Hz was used as an index of the activity level. (C) Distribution of initial power of the network inhibition observed in all recorded BL principal neurons. The two groups were separated by a border at ∼100 pA2. (D) Distribution of peak amplitude (1) and frequency (2) of burst IPSCs in the IPSC burst positive cells (power >100 pA2). Arrows show mean amplitude (474.6 ± 25.7 pA, n = 84) and mean frequency (0.62 ± 0.05 Hz, n = 84).
... Modulation of oscillatory network inhibition via D2-like receptor. (A1–3) The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole did not produce noticeable changes in the network inhibition. (B) (1) Modulatory effects of DA applied together with the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 (5 μM). (2–3) SCH 23390 antagonized the enhancing effect of DA in low initial activity cells. Please compare with the action of DA alone in Fig. 4A. (4) DA, at 30 μM (n = 7) and 100 μM (n = 5), applied together with SCH 23390 significantly reduced the power in the cells exhibiting high initial activity. (5) High concentration of DA applied together with SCH 23390 produced a trend to reduce peak amplitude and frequency of the periodic IPSC bursts in cells exhibiting high initial activity, but without significance. (Dunnett’s test, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001).
... Modulation of the oscillatory network inhibition via D4 receptor. (A) (1) Modulatory effects of the D4 receptor agonist PD 168077. (2) PD 168077, at 10 μM (n = 8), 30 μM (n = 7) and 100 μM (n = 5), significantly decreased the power of cells exhibiting high initial activity. (3) PD 168077, at 30 μM (n = 7), significantly suppressed frequency of the periodic IPSC bursts, and at 100 μM completely abolished them (n = 5). (B) (1) Modulatory effects of DA applied together with a D4 receptor antagonist FAUC 213 (5 μM). (2) DA, at 10 μM (n = 9), applied together with FAUC 213 significantly increased the power of cells exhibiting low initial activity. (3) The effect was achieved by increasing peak amplitude of the burst at 10 μM DA application. (4–5) DA, at 30 μM (n = 8), applied together with FAUC 213 did not decrease the power of cells exhibiting high initial activity. (Dunnett’s test, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001).
... Summarized effects of dopaminergic modulation of oscillatory network inhibition. (A) DA actions on low basal activity (frequency (closed column) of the periodic burst IPSCs. At 10 μM, DA had a facilitating influence on amplitude (n = 10), and, at 30 μM, DA had a facilitating influence on frequency (n = 9). (B) DA actions on high basal activity (>100 pA2) of the network inhibition. (1) DA at 30 μM (n = 12) and 100 μM (n = 6) reduced the power. (2) DA at 30 μM (n = 12) and 100 μM (n = 6) reduced the burst IPSC amplitude. DA at 100 μM increased the frequency (n = 6). (Dunnett’s test, ∗p < 0.05, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001).
... Modulation of the oscillatory network inhibition by D1-like receptor activation. (A) (1) Modulatory effects of the D1-like agonist SKF 38393. (2) SKF 38393 at 10 μM significantly increased the power in the cells with a low initial activity (n = 13). (3) SKF 38393 at 10 μM significantly increased peak amplitude of the periodic IPSC bursts (n = 13). (B) (1) Modulatory effects of DA applied together with the D2-like antagonist sulpiride (5 μM). (2) DA, at 3 μM (n = 18), applied together with sulpiride significantly increased the power in the cells with a low initial activity. (3) DA, at 3 μM and 10 μM, applied together with sulpiride produced a trend to increase peak amplitude and frequency of the burst IPSCs in cells exhibiting low initial activity, but without significance. (Dunnett’s test, ∗p < 0.05, ∗∗p < 0.01).
... Network oscillation
Contributors:Luca Merlini, Antonella Caterina Boccia, Raniero Mendichi, Yves M. Galante
tg(δ) vs frequency of native and oxidized PGM's. tg(δ)=G″/G′. Experimental conditions are described in Section 2.9.
... Oscillation curves of native sesbania (upper plot) and oxidized sesbania (lower plot). G′: elastic modulus; G″: viscous modulus. Experimental conditions are described in Section 2.9.
Contributors:Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Fikret Mamedov, Maija Holmström, Markus Nurmi, Björn Lundin, Stenbjörn Styring, Cornelia Spetea, Eva-Mari Aro
Light minus dark difference wide scan EPR spectra from PSII-enriched membranes isolated from WT and the psbo1 and psbo2 mutants. The figure shows the formation of the S2 state g=4.1 signal (double bar) and the multiline signal (bars indicate multiline peaks used for quantification of the signal), as well as the oxidation of the high potential Cytb559 (⁎, g=3.05, gz region) and the reduction of QA (arrow shows underlying signal at g=1.9 from the QA−Fe2+ interaction). Illumination was done in dry ice/ethanol bath at 200 K for 6 min by white light from 800 W projector lamp filtered through saturated CuSO4 solution. The spectra are normalized to the same Chl concentration. EPR conditions: microwave frequency 9.27 GHz, microwave power 10 mW, modulation amplitude 20 G, temperature 10 K.
... EPR spectra on the stability of YD from thylakoid membranes isolated from WT and the psbo1 and psbo2 mutants. Arrow indicates the position where the light was switched off, i.e. the position of the maximally induced radical (100%). The inset shows the YD radical spectrum and the position where the kinetic spectra were recorded (bar at the left hand shoulder). Black traces are without and grey traces are with 25 mM CaCl2. The spectra are normalized to the same Chl concentration. EPR conditions: microwave frequency 9.75 GHz, microwave power 8 mW, modulation amplitude 5 G, temperature 294 K.
... The effect of CaCl2 on the flash-induced oscillation of oxygen evolution in thylakoids isolated from WT, psbo1 and psbo2 plants. Flash-induced oscillation of oxygen evolution was measured with a home-built bare-platinum electrode system. Samples were pre-illuminated (5 μmol photons m−2 s−1) for 30 s prior to measurements. Oxygen evolution of isolated thylakoids in the absence (left panel) or in the presence (right panel) of 25 mM CaCl2, was measured after 20 s (dotted line) or 10 min (solid line) dark incubation by single turnover saturating flash fired at 1 Hz frequency. Samples were treated as described in Material and methods.