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Glassy carbon particles (millimetric or micrometric sizes) dispersions in water were treated by ultrasound at 20kHz, either in a cylindrical reactor, or in a “Rosette” type reactor, for various time lengths ranging from 3h to 10h. Further separations sedimentation allowed obtaining few nanoparticles of glassy carbon in the supernatant (diameter <200nm). Thought the yield of nanoparticle increased together with the sonication time at high power, it tended to be nil after sonication in the cylindrical reactor. The sonication of glassy carbon micrometric particles in water using “Rosette” instead of cylindrical reactor, allowed preparing at highest yield (1–2wt%), stable suspensions of carbon nanoparticles, easily separated from the sedimented particles. Both sediment and supernatant separated by decantation of the sonicated dispersions were characterized by laser granulometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Their multiscale organization was investigated by transmission electron microscopy as a function of the sonication time. For sonication longer than 10h, these nanoparticles from supernatant (diameter <50nm) are aggregated. Their structures are more disordered than the sediment particles showing typical nanometer-sized aromatic layer arrangement of glassy carbon, with closed mesopores (diameter ∼3nm). Sonication time longer than 5h has induced not only a strong amorphization (subnanometric and disoriented aromatic layer) but also a loss of the mesoporous network nanostructure. These multi-scale organizational changes took place because of both cavitation and shocks between particles, mainly at the particle surface. The sonication in water has induced also chemical effects, leading to an increase in the oxygen content of the irradiated material together with the sonication time.
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To investigate the activity of the thoracic erector spinae muscles and perceived pain intensity immediately after central postero-anterior (PA) mobilisation of the thoracic spine.
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Titanium white (TiO2) has been widely used as a pigment in the 20th century. However, its most photocatalytic form (anatase) can cause severe degradation of the oil paint in which it is contained. UV light initiates TiO2-photocatalyzed processes in the paint film, degrading the oil binder into volatile components resulting in chalking of the paint. This will eventually lead to severe changes in the appearance of a painting. To date, limited examples of degraded works of art containing titanium white are known due to the relatively short existence of the paintings in question and the slow progress of the degradation process. However, UV light will inevitably cause degradation of paint in works of art containing photocatalytic titanium white.
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The purpose of the study was to separate and identify the unknown surfactants present in flowback and produced water from oil and gas wells in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (Niobrara Formation) in Weld County, Colorado, USA. Weld County has been drilled extensively during the last five years for oil and gas between 7000–8000 feet below land-surface. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and polyethylene glycols carboxylates (PEG-Cs) were found for the first time in these flowback and produced water samples. These ethoxylated surfactants may be used as friction reducers, clay stabilizers, and surfactants. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS) was used to separate and identify the different classes of PPGs, PEG-Cs, and their isomers. The Kendrick mass scale was applied along with mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS-MS) with accurate mass for rapid and unequivocal identification. The PPGs and their isomers occur at the ppm concentration range and may be useful as “fingerprints” of hydraulic-fracturing. Comparing these detections to the compounds used in the fracturing process from FracFocus 3.0 (https://fracfocus.org), it appears that both PPGs and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are commonly named as additives, but the PEG-Cs have not been reported. The PEG-Cs may be trace impurities or degradation products of PEGs.
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We aimed to examine health-related physical fitness and its demographic and clinical correlates in patients recently treated with autologous stem cell transplantation.
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A low-salt diet has been the main treatment modality for Ménière's disease (MD) since the 1930s, although the mechanisms behind this therapy have not yet been elucidated. Salt reduction is associated with a physiological increase in plasma aldosterone concentration. Several experimental reports have suggested that aldosterone may increase endolymph absorption in the inner ear, particularly in the endolymphatic sac. Therefore, aldosterone elevations due to a low-salt diet may increase endolymph absorption in the endolymphatic sac. In this study, urinary sodium excretion, plasma aldosterone, and other hormones were measured during low-salt diet therapy in patients with MD.
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Co-hydrotreating of microalgae (M) and UEO (used engine oil) was examined for the direct production of gasoline and diesel fuels or blending components. The addition of the noble metal catalysts promoted the cracking and in situ hydrogenation of liquid products (oils) and was beneficial for the production of liquid products. Using Pt/C as the catalyst, the effects of temperature (350–450 °C), time (2–6 h), UEO/M mass ratio (6/0–0/6), catalyst loading (1–60 wt.%), and initial H2 pressure (0.1–8 MPa) on the yield and quality of the liquid products were studied. A synergistic effect existed during the co-hydrotreating of the UEO and microalgae, which not only favored the production of liquid products but also promoted in situ denitrogenation and deoxygenation. Co-hydrotreating produced an upgraded oil with fuel properties (e.g., density, calorific value) comparable to traditional liquid transportation fuels derived from fossil fuel. The S content (45 ppm) of the upgraded oil produced at 450 °C is even below the minimum requirement of China IV diesel (50 ppm). Examination of the composition of the upgraded oils showed the formation of dominant light aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that could also be used as a chemical feedstock.
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Asian ginseng and American ginseng are functional foods that share a close genetic relationship and are well-known worldwide. This article aims to investigate the correlation between morphological characteristics and the inherent quality of Asian and American ginsengs.
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) often occurs in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and is associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains unclear how timing of AKI affects it. This study assessed impact of timing of AKI on prognosis after AMI.
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A total of 100 mesozooplankton samples collected with NORPAC nets from a 0 to 150-m depth at latitudinal stations (35–44°N) along 155°E each May from 2002 through 2011 were analyzed. The mesozooplankton abundance at each station varied from 39 to 1106ind.m−3. The mesozooplankton biomass was consistently higher (80–100mgDMm−3) in the transition domain (40–42°N) than the biomass in the other domains. An empirical metabolic rate-based carbon budget model indicated that production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders was highest (120–175mgCm−2d−1) in the transition domain. A comparison between the production of the mesozooplankton suspension feeders and the food requirement of mesozooplankton carnivores indicated that the latter was well fulfilled by the former in the subarctic and transition domains. However, the food requirement of the mesozooplankton carnivores was near equal to or exceeded the production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders in the subtropical domain. As an annual event, the feeding migration of epipelagic fish to the transition and subarctic domains in summer may be interpreted by their utilization of the excess secondary production (production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders).
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