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Illustration of a linear ion trap including an axial magnetic field gradient. The static field makes individual ions distinguishable in **frequency** space by Zeeman-shifting their internal energy levels (solid horizontal lines represent **qubit** states). In addition, it mediates the coupling between internal and external degrees of freedom when a driving field is applied (dashed horizontal lines stand for vibrational energy levels of the ion string, see text).
... Rabi **oscillations** on the optical E2 transition S1/2-D5/2 in Ba + . A fit of the data (solid line) yields a Rabi **frequency** of 71.4 × 2πkHz and a transversal relaxation time of 100 μs (determined by the coherence time of the ir light used to drive the E2 resonance).
... Illustration of the coupled system ‘**qubit** ⊗ harmonic **oscillator**’ in a trap with magnetic field gradient. Internal **qubit** transitions lead to a displacement dz of the ion from its initial equilibrium position and consequently to the excitation of vibrational motion. In the formal description the usual Lamb–Dicke parameter is replaced by a new effective one (see text).
... (a) Relevant energy levels and transitions in 138Ba + . (b) Schematic drawing of major experimental elements. OPO: Optical parametric **oscillator**; YAG: Nd:YAG laser; LD: laser diode; DSP: Digital signal processing system allows for real time control of experimental parameters; AOM: Acousto-optic modulators used as optical switches and for tuning of laser light; PM: Photo multiplier tube, serves for detection of resonance fluorescence. All lasers are **frequency** and intensity stabilized (not shown).
... Schematic drawing of the resonances of **qubits** j and j + 1 with some accompanying sideband resonances. The angular **frequency** vN corresponds to the Nth axial vibrational mode, and the **frequency** separation between carrier resonances is denoted by δω.

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Nonlinear **oscillator**... He’s **frequency** formulation

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PES of the **qubit** system (a) and total dipole surface (b). For both surfaces: −52.8 pm⩽rA1⩽+52.8pm and −37.4pm⩽rE⩽+37.4pm.
... Normal modes included in the quantum dynamical calculation. (a) Coordinates of the **qubit** modes, (b) coordinates of the non-**qubit** modes.
... Spectral analysis of the NOT (top) and CNOT (bottom) gate. The solid lines correspond to the spectra of the optimized pulses, the dashed lines to the spectra of the sub pulses. The vertical lines indicate the relevant **qubit** basis transition **frequencies** for the quantum gates.
... spectroscopical data of the **qubit** vibrational modes E and A1 and the non-**qubit** modes, the δ-deformation mode (E) and the dissociative mode (A1)

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High-**frequency** **oscillations**... An example of the implantation schedule (patient #1) demonstrating areas with conventional **frequency** ictal patterns, ictal high-**frequency** **oscillations**, hyperexcitability, and radiological lesions.
... An example of the implantation schedule (patient #7) demonstrating areas with conventional **frequency** ictal patterns, ictal high-**frequency** **oscillations**, hyperexcitability, and radiological lesions.
... Summary table for statistical analysis. HFO=high **frequency** **oscillations**, CFIP=conventional **frequency** ictal patterns.

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Low-**frequency** **oscillations**... Undamped swing curve: one **oscillation** mode.
... Un-damped swing curve with two **oscillation** modes: f1=0.4, f2=0.5Hz and σ1=−0.025, σ2=+0.037s−1.

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Measured and simulated output power spectrum for the **oscillators** at Vg=0V and Vc=1.0V (left). The fundamental **oscillation** is at 15.71GHz. The bias stability diagram of the **oscillator** (right).
... Measured **oscillation** **frequency** as a function of gate bias at Vc=2.4V. The arrows indicate the two sweep directions.
... Measured **oscillator** output power for varying DC gate biases. The squares represent the fundamental **oscillation** **frequency**, the circles the 2nd harmonic and the stars the 3rd harmonic **oscillation**.
... Measured performance operating the **oscillator** as a mixer.
... Measured (circles) and simulated (squares) **oscillation** **frequencies** for different wave-guides specified in Table 1. The data points for D are solid while C are open.

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