Impact of pulse vaccination on disease dynamics and number needed to vaccinate for a moderately transmissible (R0 of 5) endemic disease with durable immunity following infection or immunization. (a) Annual attack rates and cumulative cases averted are shown for lower vaccine efficacies. At higher VE, no cases occur within the 20-year time horizon. The annual attack rate in the absence of vaccination is shown by the grey shaded area. (b) The ratio of NNV using a static versus dynamic approach was calculated annually, starting one year after the introduction of the vaccine pulse (at time=0) into the model population. Observed oscillations in the NNVs/NNVd ratio correspond to periodic outbreaks occurring in the vaccinated population with lower assumed VE.
Frequency of polymorphisms in HIV-1 subtype B IN sequences derived from clinical specimens. Consensus sequences of IN from HIV-1 subtype B are shown at the top. The polymorphism frequency (%) in the HIV-1 IN region among ART-naïve and ART-experienced individuals infected with HIV-1 are shown (GenBank Accession Nos: LC022131 to LC022730). HIV-1 carrying Q148H/R or N155H were classified as a subgroup of ART-experienced. The frequency values are presented only for mutations displaying a frequency >0.5%.
... Clinical course and drug resistance profile of two patients exhibiting RAL treatment failure. (A and B) The treatment histories and clinical courses of case 1 (A) and 2 (B). The triangles indicate the time points for deep sequencing-based HIV-1 genotyping assays (GenBank Accession No. DRA003039). The virologic responses represented by plasma HIV-1 viral load (solid line with circle) and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (dotted line with diamond). Abbreviations of drugs used: FTC, emtricitabine; d4T, stavudine; 3TC, lamivudine; ABC, abacavir; TDF, tenofovir; EFV, efavirenz; ETR, etravirine; RPV, rilpivirine; RAL, raltegravir; DTG, dolutegravir; DRVr, ritonavir-boosted darunavir; MVC, maraviroc. (A) None of the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and/or protease inhibitor (PI) associated INSTI resistance mutations was observed at baseline (time point #1). CCR5 (R5) tropic virus was dominant based on the HIV-1 coreceptor tropism assay (geno2pheno, http://coreceptor.geno2pheno.org/) at time point #4. (B) The minor PI resistance mutation M46I/L and the NRTI revertant mutation T215S were observed at baseline (time point #5). (C and D) The HIV-1 genotyping data analyzed by deep-sequencing in panels C and D correspond to the two cases shown in panels A and B, respectively. The frequencies (%) of the INSTI resistance-associated mutations were analyzed using viral RNA from plasma. Briefly, near full-length HIV-1 genome divided into four fragments were amplified, purified and validated by Qubit Fluorometer (Life technologies) and Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies). PCR amplicons were subjected to tagmentation and to DNA denaturation, and were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq (paired end 250bp sequencing read). A minimum coverage was 1000 per nucleotide position ensured to identify a minor variant present. The INSTI resistance-associated mutations reported by the International AIDS Society-USA (Wensing et al., 2014) are shown in bold. The frequency (%) of each mutation is represented only for the mutations displaying a frequency >3%.
Contributors:Jaak Monbaliu, Matthias Baeye, Bouchra Nechad, Dries Van den Eynde, Michael Fettweis
(a) Frequency of weather types over seasons. (b) Frequency of cloud-free data in the Southern Bight (51.50°N,3.10°E), along the Dutch coast (53.30°N,4.40°E), in the German Bight (54.15°N,7.50°E) and in the central North Sea (55.00°N,4.00°E). (c) Mean significant wave height at three stations.
... (a) Frequency (%) of weather types during winters of 2002–2009, winter of 2005–2006 (NAOWI− 2006) and winter 2006–2007 (NAOWI+ 2007). Mean significant wave height at (b) Bol van Heist, (c) Eierlandse Gat and (d) Helgoland for the same periods.
Oscillatory network inhibition in the rat BL. (A) Example traces of the network inhibition-positive (1) and -negative (2) cells in the BL. The network inhibition is seen as periodical bursts of IPSC (upward deflections). (B) An example power spectrum of the sample record in (A1). The area under the curve (power) between 0.1 and 3.0 Hz was used as an index of the activity level. (C) Distribution of initial power of the network inhibition observed in all recorded BL principal neurons. The two groups were separated by a border at ∼100 pA2. (D) Distribution of peak amplitude (1) and frequency (2) of burst IPSCs in the IPSC burst positive cells (power >100 pA2). Arrows show mean amplitude (474.6 ± 25.7 pA, n = 84) and mean frequency (0.62 ± 0.05 Hz, n = 84).
... Modulation of oscillatory network inhibition via D2-like receptor. (A1–3) The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole did not produce noticeable changes in the network inhibition. (B) (1) Modulatory effects of DA applied together with the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 (5 μM). (2–3) SCH 23390 antagonized the enhancing effect of DA in low initial activity cells. Please compare with the action of DA alone in Fig. 4A. (4) DA, at 30 μM (n = 7) and 100 μM (n = 5), applied together with SCH 23390 significantly reduced the power in the cells exhibiting high initial activity. (5) High concentration of DA applied together with SCH 23390 produced a trend to reduce peak amplitude and frequency of the periodic IPSC bursts in cells exhibiting high initial activity, but without significance. (Dunnett’s test, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001).
... Modulation of the oscillatory network inhibition via D4 receptor. (A) (1) Modulatory effects of the D4 receptor agonist PD 168077. (2) PD 168077, at 10 μM (n = 8), 30 μM (n = 7) and 100 μM (n = 5), significantly decreased the power of cells exhibiting high initial activity. (3) PD 168077, at 30 μM (n = 7), significantly suppressed frequency of the periodic IPSC bursts, and at 100 μM completely abolished them (n = 5). (B) (1) Modulatory effects of DA applied together with a D4 receptor antagonist FAUC 213 (5 μM). (2) DA, at 10 μM (n = 9), applied together with FAUC 213 significantly increased the power of cells exhibiting low initial activity. (3) The effect was achieved by increasing peak amplitude of the burst at 10 μM DA application. (4–5) DA, at 30 μM (n = 8), applied together with FAUC 213 did not decrease the power of cells exhibiting high initial activity. (Dunnett’s test, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001).
... Summarized effects of dopaminergic modulation of oscillatory network inhibition. (A) DA actions on low basal activity (frequency (closed column) of the periodic burst IPSCs. At 10 μM, DA had a facilitating influence on amplitude (n = 10), and, at 30 μM, DA had a facilitating influence on frequency (n = 9). (B) DA actions on high basal activity (>100 pA2) of the network inhibition. (1) DA at 30 μM (n = 12) and 100 μM (n = 6) reduced the power. (2) DA at 30 μM (n = 12) and 100 μM (n = 6) reduced the burst IPSC amplitude. DA at 100 μM increased the frequency (n = 6). (Dunnett’s test, ∗p < 0.05, ∗∗p < 0.01, ∗∗∗p < 0.001).
... Modulation of the oscillatory network inhibition by D1-like receptor activation. (A) (1) Modulatory effects of the D1-like agonist SKF 38393. (2) SKF 38393 at 10 μM significantly increased the power in the cells with a low initial activity (n = 13). (3) SKF 38393 at 10 μM significantly increased peak amplitude of the periodic IPSC bursts (n = 13). (B) (1) Modulatory effects of DA applied together with the D2-like antagonist sulpiride (5 μM). (2) DA, at 3 μM (n = 18), applied together with sulpiride significantly increased the power in the cells with a low initial activity. (3) DA, at 3 μM and 10 μM, applied together with sulpiride produced a trend to increase peak amplitude and frequency of the burst IPSCs in cells exhibiting low initial activity, but without significance. (Dunnett’s test, ∗p < 0.05, ∗∗p < 0.01).
... Network oscillation
Contributors:Raniero Mendichi, Antonella Caterina Boccia, Luca Merlini, Yves M. Galante
tg(δ) vs frequency of native and oxidized PGM's. tg(δ)=G″/G′. Experimental conditions are described in Section 2.9.
... Oscillation curves of native sesbania (upper plot) and oxidized sesbania (lower plot). G′: elastic modulus; G″: viscous modulus. Experimental conditions are described in Section 2.9.
Turbulent eddies from rotor to chord length scales carried along the mean wind in wind turbine wake flows cause rapid
changes in speed and direction over the rotor disk. Some of these effects such as dynamic stall and its associated
hysteresis are well known. Dynamic stall models are already implemented in most of BEM solvers using the famous
Beddoes-Leishman model (see e.g. ). However, the developed theories are generally validated against inviscid
theories with thin profile approximations and/or low Reynolds number experiments using a dynamic oscillation of the
blade profile which reproduces effective velocity variation effects (see. e.g. ). Additional effects such as gust and
turbulence are generally not taken into account in these approaches. Static or dynamic grid can be added at the inlet
of a test section to reproduce a universal homogeneous isotropic turbulence  and a gust-like perturbation can be
obtained using an additional by-pass duct . The present study focuses on the characterization of a new system
added at the inlet of the LHEEA wind tunnel test section to reproduce a sudden deficit of the wind inflow with large
turbulent scales superimposed. The range of the produced deficit duration is targeted to be from one order of
magnitude faster than the gust time scale in the atmosphere, to the order of a few seconds, to allow characterisation
of actuator/sensor dynamics. The facility is a standard return-circuit aerodynamic facility. The test section is 2.6m long
and has a 0.25 m2 cross-section. It can operate at a maximum speed of 40 m/s, which leads, with blade chords of
around 0.1m, to a chord Reynolds number of ~2.105. The new perturbation system, called later “chopper”, is a rotor with an eccentric rotating axis relatively to the test section so that, when the chopper blade is passing
through the test section, it induces an abrupt deficit of the wind inflow (figure 1a). The amplitude of this deficit can be
controlled through the relative displacement between the chopper and the 2D blade profile. The associated wake of
the chopper blade produces turbulent structures proportional to its blade section, which can be modified. First
chopper blade shapes that will be tested are rectangular plates with sharp edges and no pitch angles in order to
minimize and localize the shear area. Due to the rotation of the shopper blade, the time scale of the produced
turbulent structures is driven by the rotation frequency of the chopper. Also, a grid can be added in front of the
chopper, for an increase of the background turbulent intensity. A preliminary characterisation shows the ability of this
perturbation system to reach a velocity deficit of 8m/s in 0.2s, which is an order of magnitude faster than the gust-like
perturbation reproduced by  who obtained a velocity deficit of 4m/s in 2s (figure 1b). All these unsteady and
turbulent features will allow us to extract the actuator/sensor dynamics and will allow studying the impact of unsteady
and large scale turbulent inflows on the blade aerodynamics. First evaluations of the length scales downstream of the
chopper system will be provided in the oral presentation.
Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 2001, Stratospheric Harbingers of Anomalous Weather Regimes. Science, 294, 581-584;Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 1999, Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30973-30946.Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1985: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.Barriopedro D. et al., 2008, Solar mo... North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): surface sea-level pressure difference between the Subtropical (Azores) High and the Subpolar Low. It is widely accepted that NAO variability has strong impact on weather circulations over Europe and US. Major stratospheric events have a significant impact on NAO. Data set: (1949-2017) from ESRL-NOAA.
Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 2001, Stratospheric Harbingers of Anomalous Weather Regimes. Science, 294, 581-584;Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 1999, Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30973-30946.Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1985: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.Barriopedro D. et al., 2008, Solar modulation of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking, Journal of Geophisical Research, Vol. 113, D14118.Locwood M. et al., 2010, Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 5, 2.Liu Z. et al., 2014, Solar cycle modulation of the Pacific–North American teleconnection influence on North American winter climate, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 9, 2.Schwander M. et al., 2017, Reconstruction of Central European daily weather types back to 1763. International Journal of Climatology, 37(Suppl.1): 30–44 (2017)Lockwood M., Owens M. J., 2014, Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux and streamer belt width: 3. Modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119, 5193–5209.Graf Hans‐F., Walter Katrin, 2005, Polar vortex controls coupling of North Atlantic Ocean and atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L01704. http://www.europeanwindstorms.org/cgi-bin/storms/storms.cgi... North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): surface sea-level pressure difference between the Subtropical (Azores) High and the Subpolar Low. It is widely accepted that NAO variability has strong impact on weather circulations over Europe and US. Major stratospheric events have a significant impact on NAO. Data set: (1949-2017) from ESRL-NOAA.
Contributors:Björn Lundin, Cornelia Spetea, Stenbjörn Styring, Maija Holmström, Fikret Mamedov, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Markus Nurmi, Eva-Mari Aro
Light minus dark difference wide scan EPR spectra from PSII-enriched membranes isolated from WT and the psbo1 and psbo2 mutants. The figure shows the formation of the S2 state g=4.1 signal (double bar) and the multiline signal (bars indicate multiline peaks used for quantification of the signal), as well as the oxidation of the high potential Cytb559 (⁎, g=3.05, gz region) and the reduction of QA (arrow shows underlying signal at g=1.9 from the QA−Fe2+ interaction). Illumination was done in dry ice/ethanol bath at 200 K for 6 min by white light from 800 W projector lamp filtered through saturated CuSO4 solution. The spectra are normalized to the same Chl concentration. EPR conditions: microwave frequency 9.27 GHz, microwave power 10 mW, modulation amplitude 20 G, temperature 10 K.
... EPR spectra on the stability of YD from thylakoid membranes isolated from WT and the psbo1 and psbo2 mutants. Arrow indicates the position where the light was switched off, i.e. the position of the maximally induced radical (100%). The inset shows the YD radical spectrum and the position where the kinetic spectra were recorded (bar at the left hand shoulder). Black traces are without and grey traces are with 25 mM CaCl2. The spectra are normalized to the same Chl concentration. EPR conditions: microwave frequency 9.75 GHz, microwave power 8 mW, modulation amplitude 5 G, temperature 294 K.
... The effect of CaCl2 on the flash-induced oscillation of oxygen evolution in thylakoids isolated from WT, psbo1 and psbo2 plants. Flash-induced oscillation of oxygen evolution was measured with a home-built bare-platinum electrode system. Samples were pre-illuminated (5 μmol photons m−2 s−1) for 30 s prior to measurements. Oxygen evolution of isolated thylakoids in the absence (left panel) or in the presence (right panel) of 25 mM CaCl2, was measured after 20 s (dotted line) or 10 min (solid line) dark incubation by single turnover saturating flash fired at 1 Hz frequency. Samples were treated as described in Material and methods.