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  • Location and lithology of the short cores collected in the eastern part of Puyehue Lake. The upper part of PU-II long core is also represented. Based on the nature of the heavy mineral fraction, correlations between cores are proposed. Tephras T1 and T2 do not contain heavy minerals and have a similar geochemical composition. They are therefore correlated according to macroscopical descriptions only. Tephras have been attributed the following ages: T1: AD 1960; T2: AD 1921–22; T3: AD 1907; T4: AD 1575; T5: unknown. See text for details. ... Bulk grain-size distribution of 3 typical tephra samples occurring in PU-II long core. All the samples contain a mixture of tephra particles and host sediment. Tephra grains were separated from the host sediment by sieving the samples at 75 and 420 µm (see text). (A) PU-II-500: sample dominated by coarse tephra particles, where the host sediment only represents 10% of the total sample and is completely discarded after sieving at 75 µm; (B) PU-II-744: sample composed of a mixture of coarse tephra particles and host sediment. Particles coarser than 75 µm may contain host sediment; (C) PU-II-179: fine tephra layer. In this case the >75 µm fraction does not contain all the tephra particles. ... Bulk and heavy mineralogy of the 15 thickest tephra layers collected in PU-II long core. In addition, the three youngest tephras (PU-II-16, 59 and 79) are also represented. See Supplementary Table 2 for more details. ... Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology, University of Liège, Belgium... Similarity coefficient (SC) calculations (after Borchardt et al, 1972) comparing major element analysis of tephras from PU-II-P2 and PU-I-P1 short cores ... AMS radiocarbon ages obtained on bulk sediment samples bracketing the T3 tephra in PU-I-P1 and PU-II-P2 short cores ... Lake sediments
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  • X-radiographs of core MW-1. (a: Planar cross lamination, b: plant fragments). ... Multi-proxy data of core MW-1. ... Stratigraphic description of core MW-1. ... Late Quaternary stratigraphy... Palynomorph percentage diagram for core MW-1. ... Topographic map of the study area with the coring site (core MW-1). (1: Kyunggi Bay, 2: Cheonsoo Bay, 3: Hampyung Bay, 4: Haenam Bay).
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  • List of volcanic centres in southern Chile and Argentina with strong evidence for late Quaternary (post-glacial) activity, modified from Siebert et al. (2010). Arc segments: SVZ = Southern Volcanic Zone (N = North, T = Transitional, C = Central, S = South), AVZ = Austral Volcanic Zone, BA = back-arc volcanoes, after Stern (2004). Old GVP number refers to the indexing used by Siebert et al. (2010); VNum refers to the updated indexing introduced by GVP online (http://volcano.si.edu). Additional information on largest eruptions can be found in Supplementary Table 1. ... Post-glacial eruptive history of SVZ and AVZ volcanoes, as known from the historical and geological record. Calendar age is given in years before 1950 AD (historical eruptions or varve-dated), ka (Ar-Ar or stratigraphically constrained), or ka cal BP for 14C ages. Uncalibrated 14C ages are given where available, and were calibrated in OxCal4.2 (Bronk Ramsey, 2009) using the SHCal13 calibration curve (Hogg et al., 2013). The most important eruptions are highlighted in blue; the large (V > 1 km3) eruptions for which dispersal data are available are highlighted in red. These eruptions are thought to have left significant regional marker horizons which should be readily identifiable in sediment sections. Numbered references can be found in Supplementary Information. ... Maps of a) south-central and b) southernmost Chile and Argentina, showing the locations of volcanoes (listed in Table 1) and the archeological and palaeoenvironmental records in which tephra has been recognised (listed in Supplementary Table 2), as well as the distributions of the tephra deposits from each post-glacial large (≥1 km3 tephra; VEI/M ≥ 5) explosive eruption (listed in Supplementary Table 1), and of some of the environments amenable to tephra unit preservation. The legend for Fig. 2a also applies to Fig. 2b. Coloured lines are isopach contours, indicating the area in which the deposits of an eruption are inferred to be ≥10 cm, unless an otherwise labelled (number of centimetres) dashed line. These data are from the articles cited for the corresponding eruptions in Supplementary Table 1; the source volcanoes of these eruptions are named. Tephra-bearing core/exposure location labels refer to reference numbers in Supplementary Table 2; only distal exposure locations are plotted. The geographical data are from Natural Earth (natrualearthdata.com), except the peatland extent, which is from Yu et al. (2010). ... Lake sediment core... Tephra occurrence in sediment sections from various environments. Unless a name was already given to a specific tephra horizon in literature, all tephra horizons are given a unique name consisting of the (abbreviated) core or location name followed by the central depth of the tephra in the sediment core. Numbered references can be found in Supplementary Information. ... Maps of a) south-central and b) southernmost Chile and Argentina, showing the locations of volcanoes (listed in Table 1) and the archeological and palaeoenvironmental records in which tephra has been recognised (listed in Supplementary Table 2), as well as the distributions of the tephra deposits from each post-glacial large (≥1 km3 tephra; VEI/M ≥ 5) explosive eruption (listed in Supplementary Table 1), and of some of the environments amenable to tephra unit preservation. The legend for Fig. 2a also applies to Fig. 2b. Coloured lines are isopach contours, indicating the area in which the deposits of an eruption are inferred to be ≥10 cm, unless an otherwise labelled (number of centimetres) dashed line. These data are from the articles cited for the corresponding eruptions in Supplementary Table 1; the source volcanoes of these eruptions are named. Tephra-bearing core/exposure location labels refer to reference numbers in Supplementary Table 2; only distal exposure locations are plotted. The geographical data are from Natural Earth (natrualearthdata.com), except the peatland extent, which is from Yu et al. (2010).... Peat core... Schematic representation of preservation environments for tephra in southern Chile and Argentina. Most preservation is restricted to vegetated areas (i.e., the Andes), lakes (6) and peatland (2). In addition to lake and peat cores, marine cores (1) can also provide important tephrostratigraphic records. Distal tephra deposits (5, 7) are easily eroded away due to prevailing westerly winds over the Argentine steppe. Strong winds may also result in complex dispersal patterns reflected in the architecture of the deposits (5, 7). Tephra in lakes may not always result from primary fallout, and can instead be remobilised into the lake from the river catchment (3, 4).
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  • cores... core... late... Sediment... Quaternary.
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  • Location of studied surface sediment samples (Ormara transect, Hab-transect off Karachi and Indus transect) ... Location of studied surface sediment samples (Ormara transect, Hab-transect off Karachi and Indus transect) and core SO90 137KA off Pakistan. ... Proxies from coarse fraction analysis of core 137KA indicating aragonite dissolution: (A) coarse fraction content (>63 μm); (B) relative abundance of pteropods and heteropods including fragments; (C) Limacina inflata dissolution index distinguishing six dissolution stages, from 0 (perfect preservation) to 5 (worst preservation); (D) pteropod fragmentation index: fragments/(fragments+whole tests); (E) GISP2 Greenland ice core record (Grootes et al., 1993); bioturbation scale: dark grey=distinctly to indistinctly laminated sediments, light grey=indistinctly laminated sediments, white=bioturbated sediments, modified after von Rad et al., 1999). ... Geochemical proxies of core 137KA indicating organic and carbonate productivity (modified after von Rad et al., 1999): (A) total organic carbon (TOC) content; (B) bulk calcium carbonate content; (C) strontium concentration; (D) bulk aragonite content; (E) GISP2 Greenland ice core record (Grootes et al., 1993); bioturbation scale: dark grey=distinctly to indistinctly laminated sediments, light grey=indistinctly laminated sediments, white=bioturbated sediments, modified after von Rad et al., 1999). ... Sketch showing the two pteropod preservation modes in sediment core 137KA off Pakistan: (a) present-day situation with shallow deep winter mixing due to a weak NE monsoon, stable OMZ, absence of pteropods in core 137KA, pteropod occurrence restricted to shelf/upper continental slope; (b) good to excellent preservation during times of intermediate water formation down to 600 m water depth. The position of core 137KA is indicated by a star. ... Late Quaternary
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  • Location, depth, total core recovery, length of core section studied (cm below seafloor) and dominant lithology of sediment cores collected adjacent to the CLSC ... Ages determined for cores adjacent to the CLSC with 14C techniques and the depth within the cores where the 120-ka disappearance level of Globigerinoides ruber (pink) is located ... Principal component loadings for three components in the HCl soluble fraction, recalculated on a detrital-free, CaCO3-free basis of sediments from cores collected adjacent to the CLSC, after subtraction of volcaniclastic layers ... Downcore plots of the HCl soluble Mn concentrations (wt%) recalculated on a detrital-free CaCO3-free basis of sediment cores collected adjacent to the CLSC, indicating the ages (ka) of Mn peaks in each core as calculated from interpolation of 14C and palaeobiostratigraphic dates. Depths are recalculated (cmbsf*) after subtraction of volcaniclastic layers. *Peaks in Mn in core SO67/159 were determined using δ18O stratigraphy data after Gehrke (1992). ... Summary of bulk element concentrations and mean element partitioning of calcareous sediments in cores collected adjacent to the CLSC (n=40) ... hydrothermal sediments
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  • 230Thexcess profile in cores BC 14, BC 20 and BC 25 showing sedimentation rates of 0.27, 0.23 and 0.23cmka−1, respectively. ... Compositional (EDS) analysis (wt%) of glass shards for each layer obtained for each sub-samples from the three sediment cores. The data of core BC 8 are provided for comparison. ... Comprehensive facts of the several parameters studied of the volcanic horizons from the CIB sediment cores. ... Correlation of abundance of glass shards (no of shards g−1 of sediment) in BC 14, 20 and 25 with respect to age (ka) of the cores, with Cr/Sc ratio of bulk sediments and ash wt% based on Cr (Image 1) and Nb (Image 2) concentration normative calculations. Note the presence of volcanic activity indicated by abundance of glass shards, Cr/Sc ratio and single element normative calculations and excellent correlation in all the ash layers in all the three cores. Elemental concentration in ppm. ... Details of sub-samples recovered from three sediment cores from the CIB.
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  • Overview of dosimetric data and IRSL-ages obtained from cores Lz1027 and Lz1028. Please note that the water content is given in relation to dry sediment weight. ... Lithology, grain-size and selected biogeochemical data of core Lz1028. Obtained ages and interpretations are given on the right side. Please note that the water content is given in relation to wet sediment weight. ... Location of Lake El'gygytgyn in northeastern Siberia (upper part) and position of sediment cores at the southern shelf and in the deepest part of the lake (lower part). Digital elevation model after Kopsch (2005); lake bathymetry after Belyi (2001). ... Model of lake-level changes of Lake El'gygytgyn as derived from cores Lz1027 and Lz1028 from the southern lake shelf. The oldest sediments of Unit IV from core Lz1028 indicate a deep-water period prior to 185ka although the exact range of the level cannot be deduced from the sediments (a). Between 185ka and prior to 40ka at least one period with low lake level and subsequent erosion has to assumed (b). The exact lake level is not known for this period as well. During MIS 3 or an older warm stage, the lake level was probably 10m higher than in present (c) while it decreased during MIS 2. In late glacial times the lake level was around 10m lower than today (d). The bench was formed due to the onset of wave action at this level. Furthermore, beach sediments (Unit II) were deposited at the position of Lz1027. Subsequently, the lake level rose quickly to the Holocene level and the present shelf conditions with limited sedimentation came into being (e). Please note that the profiles are directed from the shelf to the crater rim. ... Late Quaternary... Lithology, grain-size and selected biogeochemical data of core Lz1027. Obtained ages and interpretations are given on the right side. Please note that the water content is given in relation to wet sediment weight.
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  • X-radiographs (B, C and E) and photographs (A and D) of selected core sections. For symbols on the right side, see Table 3. Core locations are shown in Fig. 1B. ... Description and interpretation of sedimentary facies in core sediments ... Schematic diagrams of the depositional model in the Ulleung Interplain Gap and the adjacent areas during the late Quaternary. Cross sections cut through the South Korea Plateau and the Oki Bank. UIC=Ulleung Interplain Channel; UIG=Ulleung Interplain Gap. ... Summary of sedimentary logs and correlation of cores. For location of cores, see Figs. 1B, 7B, 9D and 10. Solid triangles indicate tephra layers of known eruption ages (Machida, 1999; Gorbarenko and Southon, 2000). U-Oki=Ulleung-Oki tephra (9.3 ka); AT=Aira-Tn tephra (24.7 ka). Open triangles represent AMS 14C dates. Asterisks in cores from the Ulleung Interplain Gap denote the layers of ‘laminated Mn-carbonate mud’ (facies CaM). For detailed acoustic characters of echo types (types I-2, I-3, II-1, III-2 and IV-3), see Table 4. ... Location, water depth and length of sediment cores
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  • Late Quaternary climate dynamics... The Tortoise Lagoon (TOR) summary pollen and charcoal record against depth (cm) and age (cal yr BP). Also shown is the lithology of the sediment core with black representing peat sediments, brown reflecting lake muds and yellow representing sandy peats that occur towards the base of this record. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... The Native Companion Lagoon (NCL) summary pollen and charcoal record against depth (cm) and age (cal yr BP). Also shown is the lithology of the sediment core with black representing peat sediments and yellow reflecting sandy peats that occur towards the base of this record. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and key pollen taxa plotted on a common age scale from the three sites. Also shown are the OZ-INTIMATE climate events (Reeves et al., 2013a, see text for details). LGIT = Last Glacial Interglacial Transition; LGM = Last Glacial Maximum. The early and late deglacial of Reeves et al. (2013a) have been combined into the LGIT. ... Lake sediments... The Welsby Lagoon (WEL) summary pollen and charcoal record against depth (cm) and age (cal yr BP). Also shown is the lithology of the sediment core with black representing peat sediments and yellow reflecting sandy peats that occur towards the base of this record. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Radiocarbon Dates for the three North Stradbroke Island sites. Data shown includes sample depth, laboratory, 14C age and calibrated age (INTCAL 09; Reimer et al., 2009) for each of the cores. NC is the code for the samples taken from Native Companion Lagoon (17 14C samples); TOR is the code for the samples taken from Tortoise Lagoon (6 + pollen concentrate 14C samples); and Welsby or WEL is the code for samples taken from Welsby Lagoon (17 14C samples). Radiocarbon not used in the age models for each record have a NA in the calibrated age column.
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