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Human brucellosis, a chronic disease contracted through contact with animals and consuption of unpasteurized dairy products is underreported in limited-resource countries. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among febrile patients attending a community hospital in South western Uganda. A questionnaire that captured socio-demographic, occupational and clinical data was administered. Blood samples were tested for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and blood culture with standard aerobic BACTEC bottle was done. Of 235 patients enrolled, prevalence of brucellosis (RBPT or culture confirmed) was 14.9% (95% CI 10.6-20.1) with a culture confrmation in 4.3% of the participants. The factors independently associated with brucellosis were consumption of raw milk (aOR 406.15, 95% CI 47.67-3461.69); history of brucellosis in the family (aOR 9.19, 95% CI 1.98-42.54); and selling hides and skins (aOR 162.56, 95% CI 2.86-9256.31). Hepatomegaly (p < 0.001), splenomegaly (p = 0.018) and low body mass index (p = 0.032) were more common in patients with brucellosis compared to others. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of brucellosis among febrile patients and highlight a need for implementing appropiate tests, public awareness activities and vaccination of animals to control and eliminate the disease.
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Acute central nervous system (CNS) infections in children in sub-Saharan Africa are often fatal. Potential contributors include late presentation, limited diagnostic capacity and inadequate treatment. A more nuanced understanding of treatment practices with a goal of optimizing such practices is critical to prevent avoidable case fatality. We describe empiric antimicrobial treatment, antibiotic resistance and treatment adequacy in a prospective cohort of 459 children aged two months to 12 years hospitalised for suspected acute CNS infections in Mbarara, Uganda, from 2009 to 2012. Among these 459 children, 155 had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of malaria (case-fatality rate [CFR] 14%), 58 had bacterial infections (CFR 24%) and 6 children had mixed malaria and bacterial infections (CFR 17%). Overall case fatality was 18.1% (n = 83). Of 219 children with laboratory-confirmed malaria and/or bacterial infections, 182 (83.1%) received an adequate antimalarial and/or antibiotic on the day of admission and 211 (96.3%) within 48 hours of admission. The proportion of those receiving adequate treatment was similar among survivors and non-survivors. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone except one Escherichia coli isolate with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The observed high mortality was not a result of inadequate initial antimicrobial treatment at the hospital. The epidemiology of CNS infection in this setting justifies empirical use of a third-generation cephalosporin, however antibiotic resistance should be monitored closely.
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During 2011 a large outbreak of typhoid fever affected an estimated 1430 people in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak started in military camps in the city but then spread to the general population. This paper reports the results of an ecological analysis and a case-control study undertaken to examine water and other possible transmission pathways. Attack rates were determined for health areas and risk ratios were estimated with respect to spatial exposures. Approximately 15 months after the outbreak, demographic, environmental and exposure data were collected for 320 cases and 640 controls residing in the worst affected areas, using a structured interview questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Complete data were available for 956 respondents. Residents of areas with water supplied via gravity on the mains network were at much greater risk of disease acquisition (risk ratio = 6.20, 95%CI 3.39–11.35) than residents of areas not supplied by this mains network. In the case control study, typhoid was found to be associated with ever using tap water from the municipal supply (OR = 4.29, 95% CI 2.20–8.38). Visible urine or faeces in the latrine was also associated with increased risk of typhoid and having chosen a water source because it is protected was negatively associated. Knowledge that washing hands can prevent typhoid fever, and stated habit of handwashing habits before cooking or after toileting was associated with increased risk of disease. However, observed associations between handwashing or plate-sharing with disease risk could very likely be due to recall bias. This outbreak of typhoid fever was strongly associated with drinking water from the municipal drinking water supply, based on the descriptive and analytic epidemiology and the finding of high levels of faecal contamination of drinking water. Future outbreaks of potentially waterborne disease need an integrated response that includes epidemiology and environmental microbiology during early stages of the outbreak.
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Integrating the management and care of communicable diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and non-communicable diseases, particularly diabetes mellitus (DM), may help to achieve the ambitious health-related targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 3.3 and 3.4) by 2030. There are five important reasons to integrate. First, we need to integrate to prevent disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, HIV infection is the main driver of the TB epidemic, and antiretroviral therapy combined with isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) can reduce TB case notification rates. In Asia, DM is another important driver of the TB epidemic, and preventing or controlling DM can reduce the risk of TB. Second, we need to integrate to diagnose cases. Between a third to a half of those living with HIV, TB or DM do not know they have the disease, and bi-directional screening, whereby TB patients are screened for HIV and DM or people living with HIV and DM are screened for TB, can help to identify these 'missing cases'. Third, we need to integrate to better treat and manage patients who have a combination of two or more of these diseases, so that treatment success and retention on treatment can be optimised. Fourth, we should integrate to ensure better infection control practices for both TB and HIV infection in health facilities and congregate settings, such as prisons. Finally, we should integrate and learn how to monitor, record and report, particularly in relation to the cascade of events implicit in the HIV/AIDS and TB 90-90-90 targets.
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The perceptions and experiences of health and health seeking behaviour for the community living in the slum areas of Kamrangirchar and Hazaribagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh: a qualitative study
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