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Abstract: Overcoming the obstacle of frequent cloud coverage in optical remote sensing data is essential for monitoring dynamic land surface processes from space. APiC, a novel adaptable pixel-based compositing and classification approach, is especially designed to use high resolution spatio-temporal space-borne data. Here, pixel-based compositing is used separately for training data and prediction data. First, cloud-free pixels covered by reference data are used within adapted composite periods to compile a training dataset. The compiled training dataset contains samples of spectral reflectances for respective land cover classes at each composite period. For land cover prediction, pixel-based compositing is then applied region-wide. Multiple prediction models are used based on temporal subsets of the compiled training dataset to dynamically account for cloud coverage at pixel level. Thus we present a data-driven classification approach which is applicable in regions with different weather conditions, species composition and phenology. The capability of our method is demonstrated by mapping 19 land cover classes across Germany for the year 2016 based on Sentinel-2A data. Since climatic conditions and thus plant phenology change on a large scale, the classification was carried out separately in six landscape regions of different biogeographical characteristics. The study drew on extensive ground validation data provided by the federal states of Germany. For each landscape region, composite periods of different lengths have been established, which differ regionally in their temporal arrangement as well as in their total number, emphasising the advantage of a flexible regionalised classification procedure. Using a random forest classifier and evaluating outcomes with independent reference data, an overall accuracy of 88% was achieved, with particularly high classification accuracy of around 90% for the major land cover types. We found that class imbalances have significant influence on classification accuracy. Based on multiple temporal subsets of the compiled training dataset, over 10,000 random forest models were calculated and their performance varied considerably across and within landscape regions. The calculated importance of composite periods show that a high temporal resolution of the compiled training dataset is necessary to better capture the different phenology of land cover types. In this study we demonstrate that APiC, due to its data-driven nature, is a very flexible compositing and classification approach making efficient use of dense satellite time series in areas with frequent cloud coverage. Hence, regionalisation can be given greater focus in future broad-scale classifications in order to facilitate better integration of small-scale biophysical conditions and achieve even better results in detailed land cover mapping. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Please note: The land cover classes "Forest", "Other Vegetation", "Waters" and "Urban Area" were taken from Geobasisdaten: © GeoBasis-DE / BKG (2015) and are subject to the terms of use listed here: https://sg.geodatenzentrum.de/web_public/nutzungsbedingungen.pdf Only the results of the agricultural area classification (19 land cover types) are subject to the Creative Commons copyright license. File format: GeoTIFF with class names and color table Spatial resolution: 20m Map projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE START: 53.600000 * LONGITUDE START: 7.200000 * LATITUDE END: 47.500000 * LONGITUDE END: 13.000000 * LOCATION: Germany * METHOD/DEVICE: Multiple investigations
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Abstract: Present dataset compiles all the vascular plant taxa existing in Sierra Nevada, together with relevant features including taxonomical, morphological-ecological traits, distribution, habitats, conservation status and abundance. Data were compiled according to all the available information sources on taxonomy, ecology and plant-species distribution. The resulting dataset includes 2,348 taxa belonging to 1,937 species, 377 subspecies and 34 hybrids, and with a total of 756 genera and 146 families represented in the collection. For each taxa, together with taxonomical information (Phylum, Class, Family, Genus, Taxa), we compiled morphological or ecological traits (life-form, spinescence, flower symmetry, flower sexuality, plant gender, ratio androecium/gynoecium, flower color, perianth type, pollinator type, flowering, seed dispersal, vegetative reproduction), distribution (origin, endemic character, general distribution) and habitat/abundance related traits (substrate, altitude, habitat, local abundance, hygrophilous behavior, conservation status). Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: This dataset includes raw data collected during the experiments and FTIR/XRD analyses data obtained from samples before and after deformation. To investigate the effect of water on the rheological properties of enstatite, we have conducted triaxial compressive creep experiments, under both water-saturated and anhydrous conditions, on enstatite aggregates using a gas-medium apparatus at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota. Values of load, displacement, temperature and pressure versus time data were collected every second during each deformation experiment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the starting enstatite powder, the sample before and after deformation using a Rigaku-Miniflex diffractometer with cobalt target. To evaluate water saturation level of experiments, thin sections of enstatite aggregates and embedded olivine single crystals from each experiment were double-polished to a thickness of 200 to 300 µm with diamond lapping film down to a 1-μm finish for Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. Infrared absorption spectra were collected with a Bruker Tensor 37 Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: Cells in multicellular organisms are genetically heterogeneous owing to somatic mutations. The accumulation of somatic genetic variation in species undergoing asexual (or clonal) reproduction (termed modular species) may lead to phenotypic heterogeneity among modules. However, abundance and dynamics of somatic genetic variation under clonal growth, a widespread life history in nature, remain poorly understood. Here we show that branching events in a seagrass clone or genet leads to population bottlenecks at the cellular level and hence the evolution of genetically differentiated modules. Studying inter-module somatic genetic variation, we uncovered thousands of SNPs that segregated among modules. The strength of purifying selection on mosaic genetic variation was greater at the intra-module comparing with the inter-module level. Our study provides evidence for the operation of selection at multiple levels, of cell population and modules. Somatic genetic drift leads to the emergence of genetically unique modules; hence, modules in long-lived clonal species constitute an appropriate elementary level of selection and individuality. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Yu, Lei; Boström, Christoffer; Franzenburg, Sören; Bayer, Till; Dagan, Tal; Reusch, Thorsten B H (accepted): Somatic genetic drift and multi-level selection in modular species. Nature Ecology & Evolution Supplemental Information: Twenty-four seagrass (Zostera marina) ramets were collected from Finland. They were ramets belonging to the same genet. somaticMutation_nh.vcf: The DNA was extracted and sequenced at an average coverage of 81x on Illumina Hiseq4000 platform. For each ramet, a fixed genotype means the genotype is shared by all the cells within the ramet. The vcf file stores the loci with different fixed genotypes among the 24 ramets. 04_s8x_rmGametic.recode.vcf: One ramet (R08) was sequenced at a coverage of 1,238x on Novaseq6000 platform. The vcf file stores the intra-ramet SNPs within the ramet. 04_s10x_rmGametic.recode.vcf: One ramet (R10) was sequenced at a coverage of 1,295x on Novaseq6000 platform. The vcf file stores the intra-ramet SNPs within the ramet. 04_s12x_rmGametic.recode.vcf: One ramet (R12) was sequenced at a coverage of 1,578x on Novaseq6000 platform. The vcf file stores the intra-ramet SNPs within the ramet. Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: 60.103330 * LONGITUDE: 21.710000 * METHOD/DEVICE: Sampling by hand
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Abstract: Supplementary datasets of ichthyolith accumulation rates, as well as updated accumulation rate calculations for silica and barium from published literature, compiled for the following manuscript on the GTS2012 age model: The Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) boundary ~33.9 million years ago, has been described as a state change in the Earth system, marked by the permanent glaciation of Antarctica and a proposed increase in oceanic productivity. Here we quantified the response of fish production and biodiversity to this event using microfossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) in seven deep-sea cores. Ichthyolith Accumulation Rate (IAR, a proxy for fish biomass production) shows no synchronous trends across the E/O. IAR in the Southern Ocean and Pacific Gyre sites is an order of magnitude lower than the equatorial and Atlantic sites, demonstrating that the Southern Ocean was not a highly productive ecosystem for fish before or after the E/O. Further, tooth morphotype diversity and assemblage composition remained stable across the interval, indicating little change in the biodiversity or ecological role of fish. While the E/O boundary was a significant global climate change event, its impact on pelagic fish was relatively muted. Our results support recent findings of whale and krill diversification which suggest that the pelagic ecosystem restructuring commonly attributed to the E/O transition likely occurred much later, in the late Oligocene or Miocene. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Sibert, Elizabeth C; Zill, Michelle E; Frigyik, Ella T; Norris, Richard D (2020): No state change in pelagic fish production and biodiversity during the Eocene–Oligocene transition. Nature Geoscience, 13(3), 238-242, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0540-2 Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: -26.114000 * LONGITUDE: -5.129700 * DATE/TIME: 1980-05-06T00:00:00 * ELEVATION: -4441.0 m * Penetration: 148.7 m * Recovery: 137.6 m * LOCATION: South Atlantic/PLATEAU * CAMPAIGN: Leg73 * BASIS: Glomar Challenger * METHOD/DEVICE: Drilling/drill rig
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Abstract: An integrated radio-astrochronological framework of the Agrio Formation in the Andean Neuquén Basin of west-central Argentina provides new constraints on the age and the duration of the late Valanginian through Hauterivian stratigraphic interval. A CA-ID TIMS U-Pb age of 126.97 ± 0.04(0.07)[0.15] Ma is presented here from the upper Hauterivian Agua de la Mula Member of the Agrio Formation. Biostratigraphic data from ammonoids and calcareous nannofossils and this high precision new radioisotopic age, together with three former ones from the same Agrio Formation are combined with new astrochronological data in the Andes. These are correlated with modern cyclostratigraphic studies in the classical sections of the Mediterranean Province of the Tethys, supporting detailed interhemispheric correlations for the Early Cretaceous. We also provide new δ13C data from the Agrio Formation which are compared with records from the classic Tethyan sections. According to our calibration, the minimum in the values in the mid-Hauterivian appears to be synchronous and, thus, another important stratigraphic marker for global correlation. A new duration of 5.21 ± 0.08 myr is calculated for the Hauterivian Stage, starting at 131.29 ± 0.19 Ma and ending at 126.08 ± 0.19 Ma. The difference between the duration of the Hauterivian in GTS2016 and in this study is 1.32 myr while the base and top of the GTS2016 Hauterivian differ respectively by 3.40 and 4.69 myr. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Aguirre-Urreta, Beatriz; Martinez, Mathieu; Schmitz, Mark; Lescano, Marina; Omarini, Julieta; Tunik, Maisa; Kuhnert, Henning; Concheyro, Andrea; Rawson, Peter F; Ramos, Victor A; Reboulet, Stéphane; Noclin, Nicolas; Frederichs, Thomas; Nickl, Anna-Leah; Pälike, Heiko (2019): Interhemispheric radio-astrochronological calibration of the time scales from the Andean and the Tethyan areas in the Valanginian–Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous). Gondwana Research, 70, 104-132, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2019.01.006 Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: Map showing the spatial distribution of ecosystems identified in Sierra Nevada high mountain (southern Spain). Several sources were used to generate spatial distribution of ecosystem types. The Land Cover and Use Information System of Spain (SIOSE)(https://www.siose.es/) was used as base spatial information. Other technical reports also supported the spatialization and identification of the ecosystem types (e.g. Molero-Mesa, J.; Pérez Raya, F.; López Nieto, J.M.; El Aallali, A. & Hita Fernández, J.A. (2001). Cartografía y evaluación de la vegetación del Parque Natural de Sierra Nevada [Mapping and assessment of the vegetation of the Sierra Nevada Nature Reserve]. Department of the Environment. Regional Government of Andalusia). The main ecosystem types identified were: natural forests (Holm oak and Pyrenean oak forests [Quercus ilex and Q. pyrenaica], Scot pine forests [Pinus sylvestris var. nevadensis]), high-mountain shrublands (Juniperus communis), pine plantations, high-mountain grasslands ("borreguiles) among others. The data generated is stored as a vectorial file (shapefile). The coordinate reference system is UTM Zone 30N WGS84) (epsg:23030). Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE START: 37.250000 * LONGITUDE START: -3.640000 * LATITUDE END: 36.910000 * LONGITUDE END: -2.590000 * LOCATION: Sierra Nevada, Spain * METHOD|DEVICE: Multiple investigations
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Abstract: Isostichopus sp. is a variety of Isostichopus badionotus, proposed as a new species, which has been intensely fished in the Colombian Caribbean, arousing interest for its aquaculture. This study evaluated the effect of two culture densities (1-3 larvae ml-1), two temperatures (23 and 26°C) and two microalgae diets (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Nannochloropsis oculata 1:1:1 and I. galbana, C. calcitrans 1:1) on the survival, development and growth of its larvae. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Acosta Ortiz, Ernesto Joaquin; Rodríguez Forero, Adriana; Werding, Bernd; Kunzmann, Andreas (submitted): Effect of density, temperature and diet on the growth, survival and development of larvae and juveniles of Isostichopus sp. Aquaculture Research Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: Detailed organic geochemical and carbon isotopic (d13C and D14C) analyses are performed on permafrost deposits affected by coastal erosion (Herschel Island, Canadian Beaufort Sea), and adjacent marine sediments (Herschel Basin) to understand the fate of organic carbon in Arctic nearshore environments. We use an end-member model based on the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter to identify sources of organic carbon. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to quantify the contribution of coastal permafrost erosion to the sedimentary carbon budget. The models suggest that 36 % of all carbon released by local coastal permafrost erosion is efficiently trapped and sequestered in the nearshore zone. This highlights the importance of sedimentary traps in environments such as basins, lagoons, troughs and canyons for the carbon sequestration in previously poorly investigated, nearshore areas. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: This dataset contains PISM simulation results (http://www.pism-docs.org) of the Antarctic Ice Sheet based on code release v1.0-paleo-ensemble (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3574033). PISM is the open-source Parallel Ice Sheet Model developed mainly at UAF, USA and PIK, Germany. With the help of added python scripts, all figures can be reproduced as in the journal publication: - Albrecht et al., 2020, doi:10.5194/tc-14-599-2020. --- Data: Find PISM results as netCDF data. See 'README.md' for a list of all performed experiment. All forcing input data for the experiments and plots can be downloaded and remapped via https://github.com/pism/pism-ais. Some of the original input data files are freely available, for others please contact the author or the corresponding data publisher. Figure plotting scripts (jupyter notebook based on python, see https://jupyter.org) in 'plot_scripts' access the uploaded PISM results in 'model_data' and save the plots to 'final_figures'. Jupyter notebook can be run in the browser and shared, see https://nbviewer.jupyter.org/url/www.pik-potsdam.de/~albrecht/notebooks/paleo_paper/paleo_paper_final.ipynb. --- Contact: Albrecht, Torsten (albrecht@pik-potdam.de) ; Potsdam-Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam, Germany Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Albrecht, Torsten; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders (2020): Glacial-cycle simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) - Part 1: Boundary conditions and climatic forcing. The Cryosphere, 14(2), 599-632, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-599-2020 Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: -90.000000 * LONGITUDE: 0.000000
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