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Recent research has established the effect of mindfulness on subjective well-being. In this present study we attempt to extend the previous literature by investigating the potential mediating role of resilience in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and affect as indices of subjective well-being. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to 327 undergraduate university students in India. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results showed that resilience partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and life satisfaction and affect components. The findings corroborate an important role of resilience in mindfulness exerting its beneficial effects. This study makes a contribution to the potential mechanism of the association between mindfulness and subjective well-being.
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Interest in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has generated numerous scientific studies of its neuropathologies, as well as its roles in normal sensorimotor integration and learning. Studies are informed by knowledge of DLS functional organization, the guiding principle being its somatotopic afferent projections from primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices. The potential to connect behaviorally relevant function to detailed structure is elevated by mouse models, which have access to extensive genetic neuroscience tool kits. Remaining to be demonstrated, however, is whether the correspondence between S1/M1 corticostriatal terminal distributions and the physiological properties of DLS neurons demonstrated in rats and non-human primates exists in mice. Given that the terminal distribution of S1/M1 projections to the DLS in mice is similar to that in rats, we studied whether firing rates (FRs) of DLS neurons in awake, behaving mice are related to activity of individual body parts. MSNs exhibited robust, selective increases in FR during movement or somatosensory stimulation of single body parts. Properties of MSNs, including baseline FRs, locations, responsiveness to stimulation, and proportions of responsive neurons were similar to properties observed in rats. Future studies can be informed by the present demonstration that the mouse lateral striatum functions as a somatic sensorimotor sector of the striatum and appears to be a homolog of the primate putamen, as demonstrated in rats (Carelli and West, 1991).
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The objective of this study was to investigate a role of a recently discovered marsupial nidovirus in the development of a neurological disease, termed wobbly possum disease (WPD), in the Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Four possums received 1mL of a standard inoculum that had been prepared from tissues of WPD-affected possums, 4 possums received 1.8mL (1×106 TCID50) of a cell lysate from inoculated cultures, and 4 possums received 1mL (×107 TCID50) of a purified WPD isolate. All but one possum that received infectious inocula developed neurological disease and histopathological lesions characteristic for WPD. High levels of viral RNA were detected in livers from all possums that received infectious inocula, but not from control possums. Altogether, our data provide strong experimental evidence for the causative involvement of WPD virus in development of a neurological disease in infected animals.
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Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major concern to public health. Phage therapy has been proposed as a promising alternative to antibiotics, but an increasing number of studies suggest that both of these antimicrobial agents in combination are more effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria than either alone. We advocate the use of phages in combination with antibiotics and present the evolutionary basis for our claim. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for the realistic application of phage–antibiotic combined therapy.
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Engineering of large articular cartilage tissue constructs remains a challenge as tissue growth is limited by nutrient diffusion. Here, a novel strategy is investigated, generating large constructs through the assembly of individually cultured, interlocking, smaller puzzle-shaped subunits. These constructs can be engineered consistently with more desirable mechanical and biochemical properties than larger constructs (~4-fold greater Young׳s modulus). A failure testing technique was developed to evaluate the physiologic functionality of constructs, which were cultured as individual subunits for 28 days, then assembled and cultured for an additional 21–35 days. Assembled puzzle constructs withstood large deformations (40–50% compressive strain) prior to failure. Their ability to withstand physiologic loads may be enhanced by increases in subunit strength and assembled culture time. A nude mouse model was utilized to show biocompatibility and fusion of assembled puzzle pieces in vivo. Overall, the technique offers a novel, effective approach to scaling up engineered tissues and may be combined with other techniques and/or applied to the engineering of other tissues. Future studies will aim to optimize this system in an effort to engineer and integrate robust subunits to fill large defects.
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Commercial wind towers are passive ventilation technology based on traditional wind towers of the Middle East. Typical operation of wind towers in cold – mild climates is generally limited to summer-seasons as the outdoor air is too cold to be introduced into spaces for the majority of the year. In addition, the use of natural ventilation solutions has been seen to increase heat loss in buildings and lead to increased energy cost. Wind towers are normally shut down for the sake of avoiding indoor heating energy losses during winter months. Consequently, the concentration of pollutants has seen to rise above the guideline levels, which can lead to ill health. To improve the year-round capabilities of wind towers, a heat recovery system utilising the combination of heat pipes and heat sink was incorporated into a multi-directional wind tower. This study investigates the potential of this concept through the use of numerical analysis and wind tunnel experiments for validation. The findings showed that the wind tower with heat pipes was capable of meeting the required ventilation rates above an inlet air velocity of 1 m/s. In addition to sufficient ventilation, the integration of heat pipes had a positive effect on thermal performance of the wind tower; it raised the supply air by up to 4.5 K. The technology presented here is subject to a patent application (PCT/GB2014/052263).
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Living medusozoans and their Middle Cambrian ancestors are characterized fundamentally by four-fold symmetry. The symmetric pattern of their earlier antecedents during the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition, traditionally expected to be tetramerous, needs to be reconsidered in the light of Cambrian pentamerous fossil medusozoans. Here we present a microanatomic analysis of three tiny tetramerous specimens from the Lower Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation in southern China; they display diagnostic characteristics of Cubomedusae, including paired but well-separated interradial tentacles deep in the subumbrellar cavity, interradial septa connected by claustra, coronal muscles at the subumbrella, and an annular velarium suspended by twelve frenula. These fossils likely represent three new taxa of a monophyletic stem group of cubomedusans, which is further confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis based on the data matrix with 25 taxa and 107 characteristics. Among these fossil cubozoans and co-occurring pentamerous forms, the specimen ELISN31-31 is mostly close to the crown-group Cubomedusae with regard to its narrow vascular cavity and the endodermic perradial fusion. Diverse symmetrical patterns among different lineages of early Cambrian medusozoan candidates might have been independently evolved in different classes of medusozoans.
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The mechanisms underlying organ vascularization are not well understood. The zebrafish intestinal vasculature forms early, is easily imaged using transgenic lines and in-situ hybridization, and develops in a stereotypical pattern thus making it an excellent model for investigating mechanisms of organ specific vascularization. Here, we demonstrate that the sub-intestinal vein (SIV) and supra-intestinal artery (SIA) form by a novel mechanism from angioblasts that migrate out of the posterior cardinal vein and coalesce to form the intestinal vasculature in an anterior to posterior wave with the SIA forming after the SIV. We show that vascular endothelial growth factor aa (vegfaa) is expressed in the endoderm at the site where intestinal vessels form and therefore likely provides a guidance signal. Vegfa/Vegfr2 signaling is required for early intestinal vasculature development with mutation in vegfaa or loss of Vegfr2 homologs causing nearly complete inhibition of the formation of the intestinal vasculature. Vegfc and Vegfr3 function, however, are dispensable for intestinal vascularization. Interestingly, ubiquitous overexpression of Vegfc resulted in an overgrowth of the SIV, suggesting that Vegfc is sufficient to induce SIV development. These results argue that Vegfa signaling directs endothelial cells to migrate out of existing vasculature and coalesce to form the intestinal vessels. It is likely that a similar mechanism is utilized during vascularization of other organs.
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In this paper, the navigation system of the autonomous vehicle prototype Verdino is introduced. Two navigation levels are considered. In the first level, a trajectory is generated from the current position toward a goal that considers two different approaches. In the first, the minimum cost path is obtained using a classical approach (used for regular navigation). The second approach is a little more complex, relying on a set of precomputed primitives representing the motion model of the vehicle, which are used as part of an ARA⁎ algorithm in order to find the best trajectory. This trajectory consists of both forward and backward motion segments for complex maneuvers. In the second level, a local planner is in charge of computing the commands sent to the vehicle in order to follow the trajectory. A set of tentative local trajectories is computed in the Frenét space and scored using several factors, described in this paper. Some results for the two navigation levels are shown at the end of this document. For the global planner, several examples of the maneuvers obtained are shown and certain related factors are quantified and compared. As for the local planner, a study on the influence of the defined weights on the vehicle׳s final behavior is presented. Also, from these tests several configurations have been chosen and ranked according to two different proposed behaviors. The navigation system shown has been tested both in simulated and in real conditions, and the attached video shows the vehicle׳s real-world performance.
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The front and back surfaces of fully aromatic polyamide thin films isolated from reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were characterized by TEM, SEM and AFM. The front surfaces were relatively rough showing polyamide protuberances of different sizes and shapes; the back surfaces were all consistently smoother with very similar granular textures formed by polyamide nodules of 20–50nm. Occasional pore openings of approximately the same size as the nodules were observed on the back surfaces. Because traditional microscopic imaging techniques provide limited information about the internal morphology of the thin films, TEM tomography was used to create detailed 3D visualizations that allowed the examination of any section of the thin film volume. These tomograms confirmed the existence of numerous voids within the thin films and revealed structural characteristics that support the water permeance difference between brackish water (BWRO) and seawater (SWRO) RO membranes. Consistent with a higher water permeance, the thin film of the BWRO membrane ESPA3 contained relatively more voids and thinner sections of polyamide than the SWRO membrane SWC3. According to the tomograms, most voids originate near the back surface and many extend all the way to the front surface shaping the polyamide protuberances. Although it is possible for the internal voids to be connected to the outside through the pore openings on the back surface, it was verified that some of these voids comprise nanobubbles that are completely encapsulated by polyamide. TEM tomography is a powerful technique for investigating the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films. A comprehensive knowledge of the nanostructural distribution of voids and polyamide sections within the thin film may lead to a better understanding of mass transport and rejection mechanisms in RO membranes.
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