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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the DNA-binding properties of mononuclear ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+ and heterodinuclear ruthenium(II)–platinum(II) complexes [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(μ-dpp)PtX2]2+ (X=Cl (1), Br (2), I (3)) and [Ru(bpy)2(μ-dpp)PtCl2]2+ (4). We presented the interaction study of the complexes with CT-DNA and the DNA photocleavage properties using pBR322 supercoiled plasmid DNA when irradiated with visible light and their cytotoxicity against HeLa cervical cancer cell line. All the complexes were cleavage inactive in the dark, while the photoinduced DNA cleavages were observed for these complexes. It appeared that the DNA photocleavage for [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+ proceeded via a singlet oxygen pathway, whereas complexes 1–3 proceeded via a photoredox pathway. [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+, 2, and 3 in the light displayed favorable cytotoxicity, which were in all cases similar to cisplatin. 2 (IC50=9.1μM) which was less toxic than [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+ (IC50=5.6μM) produced the largest PI (>22), indicating a highly effective photocytotoxic agent. The order of cytotoxicity of 1–4 in the light may be due to the lipophilicity (2>3>1≫4).
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Multiple applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) could result in their accumulation in soil, threatening higher terrestrial plants. Several reports have shown the effects of MONPs on plants. In this review, we analyze the most recent reports about the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to stress imposed by MONPs. Findings demonstrate that MONPs may be taken up and accumulated in plant tissues causing adverse or beneficial effects on seed germination, seedling elongation, photosynthesis, antioxidative stress response, agronomic, and yield characteristics. Given the importance of determining the potential risks of MONPs on crops and other terrestrial higher plants, research questions about field long-term conditions, transgenernational phytotoxicity, genotype specific sensitivity, and combined pollution problems should be considered.
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Non-selective and subunit (GluN2B)-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists represent promising alternative antidepressant drugs with fast onset of the therapeutic action. The neuronal activation pattern induced by NMDAR antagonists is well characterized by c-Fos expression analysis only in the adult rodent brain. In contrast, there is little information available regarding their effects during postnatal development. Here we performed a systematic c-Fos brain mapping of the non-selective NMDAR antagonist MK-801 and the GluN2B-specific antagonist Ro 25-6981 from postnatal day 16 (P16) to P40. We found significant regional differences with gender-specificity in the activation pattern compared to the adult. Surprisingly, in the hippocampus, MK-801 triggered at pre-pubertal stages (especially at P24) very strong c-Fos expression, followed by low levels after P30, the approximate time point of puberty onset in mice. The cortical distribution of MK-801-triggered c-Fos expression before puberty differed also substantially from the adult brain, showing high levels only in deep cortical layers at pre-pubertal stages. In comparison, the cortical activation induced by Ro 25-6981 diminished from high pre-pubertal levels and was in comparison with that triggered by MK-801 low in the hippocampus. These results reveal highly dynamic changes in the c-Fos activation pattern induced by NMDAR antagonists during puberty.
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Voluminous Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the northern and central Lhasa subterranes contain important information on the tectono-magmatic processes. In this contribution, we focus on the Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Nagqu area, northern Lhasa subterrane, and present their zircon LA-ICP-MS U–Pb ages, in situ Hf isotopic data, whole-rock major and trace element compositions, and Sr–Nd isotopic data. The Nagqu volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic (K2O: 1.41–8.52wt.%; K2O/Na2O: 0.36–6.65) and feature similar geochemical characteristics (e.g., subparallel distribution of incompatible elements and REEs). Assimilation–fractional crystallization of magmas from identical source (rather than diverse magma sources) was mainly responsible for the formation of the diverse volcanic rock types. High Hf/Sm (>0.7) and high U/Yb whole-rock values and low Y values in zircon grains suggest the involvement of terrigenous components rather than subducted oceanic crust in the magma source. Tectonic discrimination diagrams, sedimentary environment (marine–continental transition), magma compositions (K-rich and terrigenous components), crustal thickening, and spatio-temporal variations in subduction, syn-collisional and post-collisional processes, indicate that the geodynamic setting of the Early Cretaceous magmatism was associated with the collision between the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes. The high-K characteristics were inherited from the melts derived from the partial melting of lower metasomatized lithospheric mantle (the K-rich layer), which was transported to great depths by the continuously thickening lithosphere, eventually triggering melting.
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We have investigated the quality of precise orbits for the SARAL altimeter satellite using Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) data from March 14, 2013 to August 10, 2014. We have identified a 4.31±0.14cm error in the Z (cross-track) direction that defines the center-of-mass of the SARAL satellite in the spacecraft coordinate system, and we have tuned the SLR and DORIS tracking point offsets. After these changes, we reduce the average RMS of the SLR residuals for seven-day arcs from 1.85 to 1.38cm. We tuned the non-conservative force model for SARAL, reducing the amplitude of the daily adjusted empirical accelerations by eight percent. We find that the best dynamic orbits show altimeter crossover residuals of 5.524cm over cycles 7–15. Our analysis offers a unique illustration that high-elevation SLR residuals will not necessarily provide an accurate estimate of radial error at the 1-cm level, and that other supporting orbit tests are necessary for a better estimate. Through the application of improved models for handling time-variable gravity, the use of reduced-dynamic orbits, and through an arc-by-arc estimation of the C22 and S22 coefficients, we find from analysis of independent SLR residuals and other tests that we achieve 1.1–1.2cm radial orbit accuracies for SARAL. The limiting errors stem from the inadequacy of the DPOD2008 and SLRF2008 station complements, and inadequacies in radiation force modeling, especially with respect to spacecraft self-shadowing and modeling of thermal variations due to eclipses.
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The purpose of this paper is to build an adaptive feedback linear control system to check the variation of cutting force signal to improve the tool life. The paper discusses the use of transfer function approach in improving the mathematical modelling and adaptively controlling the process dynamics of the turning operation. The experimental results shows to be in agreement with the simulation model and error obtained is less than 3%. The state space approach model used in this paper successfully check the adequacy of the control system through controllability and observability test matrix and can be transferred from one state to another by appropriate input control in a finite time. The proposed system can be implemented to other machining process under varying range of cutting conditions to improve the efficiency and observability of the system.
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Results from the J-ROCKET AF study revealed that rivaroxaban was non-inferior to warfarin with respect to the principal safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This subgroup analysis evaluated whether non-major clinically relevant bleeding (NMCRB) could be a predictive factor for major bleeding (MB). Other predictive factors for MB were also obtained in both rivaroxaban and warfarin treatment groups.
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Placental ischemic disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes are frequently observed in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Despite the administration of conventional antithrombotic treatment a significant number of women continue to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes, with uncertain prevention and management. Efforts to develop effective pharmacological strategies for refractory obstetric APS cases will be of significant clinical benefit for both mothers and fetuses. Although the antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is increasingly used to treat pregnant women with APS, little is known about its efficacy and mechanism of action of HCQ.
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To compare the efficacy of three slow expiratory airway clearance techniques (ACTs).
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Sleep duration has been associated with several health outcomes in children and adolescents. As an extensive number of questionnaires are currently used to investigate sleep schedule or sleep time, we performed a systematic review of criterion validation of sleep time questionnaires for children and adolescents, considering accelerometers as the reference method. We found a strong correlation between questionnaires and accelerometers for weeknights and a moderate correlation for weekend nights. When considering only studies performing a reliability assessment of the used questionnaires, a significant increase in the correlations for both weeknights and weekend nights was observed. In conclusion, moderate to strong criterion validity of sleep time questionnaires was observed; however, the reliability assessment of the questionnaires showed strong validation performance.
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