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An H-ZSM-5 zeolite (Si/Al = 12) was treated with solutions of tartaric acid, citric acid and EDTA. The impact of this treatment on the durability in the conversion of ethanol was investigated and correlated with the extraction of small amounts of aluminium. M06-L/6-31G(d) was applied as level of theory for the quantum chemical part of this work. These investigations showed that all EFSPE can be regarded as solvable and hence also as removable. By solid state characterisations (NMR, IR, XRD) no changes in the bulk properties were observed, although catalytic testings of the treated samples showed significant durability improvements. This ostensible contradiction can be explained by a changed ethene supply to the hydrocarbon pool after the removal of EFSPE acting as active sites which catalyse only dehydration reactions.
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Nitrogen dioxide, 14N16O2, line positions and intensities calculated by us based on a “local” effective operator method are compared to the recent results of the “global” calculation. The comparison was made for theoretical absorption coefficients in the spectral range of 600–3700cm−1 using the measured data taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In order to conduct the calculations, empirical parameters of the effective rotational Hamiltonian of the twenty-one vibrational states were applied from the most recent experimental works. The second order parameters of the dipole moment function of 14N16O2 were determined for the first time. The “local” line list in this research consists of one hundred and four bands and includes the line intensities of the v1+v2+v3 band of 14N16O2 that have not yet been investigated in the literature. Among these bands, only eleven bands are included in HITRAN2012. The reasons behind the disagreements between the theoretical and measured absorption coefficients of 14N16O2 are discussed.
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Anxiety and related disorders (AD) disproportionately affect women, and are the most prevalent of all mental health conditions. The current research represents the first study of maternal postpartum AD prevalence in which all of the AD are assessed, and one of few studies of this type in which maternal prenatal AD incidence is assessed.
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The European abalone Haliotis tuberculata is a delicacy and consequently a commercially valuable gastropod species. Aquaculture production and wild populations are subjected to multiple climate-associated stressors and anthropogenic pressures, including rising sea-surface temperatures, ocean acidification and an emerging pathogenic Vibrio infection. Transcript expression data provides a valuable resource for understanding abalone responses to variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. To generate an extensive transcriptome, we performed next-generation sequencing of RNA on larvae exposed to temperature and pH variation and on haemolymph of adults from two wild populations after experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. We obtained more than 1.5 billion raw paired-end reads, which were assembled into 328,519 contigs. Filtration and clustering produced a transcriptome of 41,099 transcripts, of which 10,626 (25.85%) were annotated with Blast hits, and 7380 of these were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in Blast2Go. A differential expression analysis comparing all samples from the two life stages identified 5690 and 10,759 transcripts with significantly higher expression in larvae and adult haemolymph respectively. This is the greatest sequencing effort yet in the Haliotis genus, and provides the first high-throughput transcriptomic resource for H. tuberculata.
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This study reports the results from analyzing a number of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra in the 2.06-μm spectral region for pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 in dry air. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique has been used to retrieve the various spectral line parameters. The dataset includes 27 spectra: ten pure CO2, two 99% 13C-enriched CO2 and fifteen spectra of mixtures of 12C-enriched CO2 in dry air. The spectra were recorded at various gas sample temperatures between 170 and 297K. The absorption path lengths range from 0.347 to 49m. The sample pressures for the pure CO2 spectra varied from 1.1 to 594Torr; for the two 13CO2 spectra the pressures were ∼10 and 146Torr. For the air-broadened spectra, the pressures of the gas mixtures varied between 200 and 711Torr with CO2 volume mixing ratios ranging from 0.014% to 0.203%. The multispectrum fitting technique was applied to fit simultaneously all these spectra to retrieve consistent set of line positions, intensities, and line shape parameters including their temperature dependences; for this, the Voigt line shape was modified to include line mixing (via the relaxation matrix formalism) and quadratic speed dependence. The new results are compared to select published values, including recent ab initio calculations. These results are required to retrieve the column averaged dry air mole fraction (XCO2) from space-based observations, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite mission that NASA launched in July 2014.
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The spectrum of 15NH3 has been investigated at room temperature in the 6367–6578cm−1 region using an external cavity tunable diode laser spectrometer. Particular care was taken to discriminate 15NH3 from the main species 14NH3 present as an impurity in the spectra. As a result, a new list of line positions and line strengths has been proposed for this isotopologue. Together 3002 transitions have been observed, and their line strengths extending on four orders of magnitudes were derived.
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Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode causing infection and heartworm disease in dogs and other canids, cats, and occasionally in humans. Prevention with macrocyclic lactones (ML) is recommended during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been reported. ABC-B transporter genes are thought to be involved in the mechanism of ML resistance in other nematodes. This study aimed to identify all the ABC-B transporter genes in D. immitis using as a reference the nDi.2.2 D. immitis whole genome, which is not completely annotated. Using bioinformatic tools and PCR amplification on pooled D. immitis genomic DNA and on pooled cDNA, nine ABC transporter genes including one pseudogene were characterized. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses allowed identification of three P-glycoproteins (Pgps) (Dim-pgp-3 Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11), of two ABC-B half transporter genes (one ortholog of Cel-haf-4 and Cel-haf-9; and one ortholog of Cel-haf-1 and Cel-haf-3), of one ABC half transporter gene (ortholog of Cel-haf-5) that contained an ABC-C motif, and of one additional half transporter that would require functional study for characterization. The number of ABC-B transporter genes identified was lower than in Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus. Further studies are needed to understand their possible role in ML resistance in D. immitis. These ABC transporters constitute a base for ML resistance investigation in D. immitis and advance our understanding of the molecular biology of this parasite.
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The IPCC has reasserted the strong influence of anthropogenic CO2 contributions on global climate change and highlighted the polar-regions as highly vulnerable. With these predictions the cold adapted fauna endemic to the Southern Ocean, which is dominated by fishes of the sub-order Notothenioidei, will face considerable challenges in the near future. Recent physiological studies have demonstrated that the synergistic stressors of elevated temperature and ocean acidification have a considerable, although variable, impact on notothenioid fishes. The present study explored the transcriptomic response of Pagothenia borchgrevinki to increased temperatures and pCO2 after 7, 28 and 56days of acclimation. We compared this response to short term studies assessing heat stress alone and foretell the potential impacts of these stressors on P. borchgrevinki's ability to survive a changing Southern Ocean.
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The absorption spectrum of acetylene has been recorded at room temperature (296K) using high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the 7914 and 8252cm−1 interval. The noise equivalent absorption of the spectra is αmin∼5×10−11cm−1. A list of about 5600 absorption features was constructed. The smallest intensities are on the order of 10−29cm/molecule. A total of 1325 rovibrational lines of 12C2H2 were assigned by comparison with accurate predictions provided by a global effective operator model. In addition, 132 rovibrational lines of 12C13CH2 present in natural isotopic abundance were assigned on the basis of their published positions. The assigned 12C2H2 lines belong to 12 new and 6 already known bands, for which additional J-lines were assigned. The line intensities of the three cold bands of 12C13CH2 are reported for the first time. The new data will be valuable to refine the parameters of the global effective Hamiltonian and dipole moments of 12C2H2 in the region.
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Results of the catalytic hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) in the presence of 1% Pd/C catalyst with analysis of the reaction products at the steps corresponding to the consumption of 1, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9mols of hydrogen per mol of TNBA are presented. Numerous reaction intermediates were identified using the 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy; the reaction mixture composition was assessed quantitatively at different steps of the hydrogenation. The data obtained were used to propose a scheme of TNBA transformations over the Pd/C catalyst in the aqueous-phase reaction conditions. The data on the component composition at different steps of TNBA hydrogenation are important to understand the process chemistry, to explore the possibility of selective formation of different types of intermediate nitroamino compounds, and to synthesize high-performance catalysts for the hydrogenation of aromatic polynitro compounds.
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