High quality line parameters of the band systems of ethane are required for accurate characterization of spectral features observed in the atmospheres of Jovian planets and their satellites. To date, experimental characterization of the excited vibrational states lying below 1300cm−1 has been made. This includes the torsional bands around 35µm, ν9 (820cm−1), ν3 (990cm−1), ν12−ν9 (380cm−1) and ν9+ν4−ν4 (830cm−1) bands. These earlier high resolution ro-vibrational analyses were made to experimental accuracy. Here, we report a detailed analysis of the weak ν6 band in the 1340–1410cm−1 region using a spectrum recorded at a resolution of 0.003cm−1 and temperature of 200K. The Hamiltonian model included couplings between ν6 and ν9 (in particular with ν9+2ν4 with which it is resonantly coupled) as well as couplings between ν6 and ν8. An excellent fit to within experimental accuracy was obtained. Taking the results of this 5-state fit, together with earlier results on lower lying vibrations, we now have experimental characterization for torsion–vibration states of ethane lying below 1400cm−1.
Contributors:Daniel Garcia de la serrana, Edson A. Mareco, Vera LA Vieira, Deborah M. Power, Ian A. Johnston
Skeletal muscle, cartilage and bone must function in a co-ordinated fashion during locomotion and growth. In the present study on the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) we tested the hypothesis that muscle and bone differ in their responsiveness to stimuli eliciting fast growth, providing a potential mechanism for generating the skeletal deformities observed in aquaculture. To investigate transcription regulation in skeletal muscle and bone we stimulated protein synthesis using a flooding dose of the branched chain amino acid leucine and compared the results with saline-injected controls. To increase the amount of available sequence information for gene expression analysis a de novo transcriptome was assembled using publicly available Next Generation Sequencing libraries from embryo, fast skeletal muscle, bone and cartilage. The resulting 5 million reads were assembled into 125,646 isotigs representing around 16,000 unique genes, including most components of the Pi3k/Akt/mTor signalling pathway. Principal components analysis was able to distinguish the transcriptional responses between leucine and saline injected controls in skeletal muscle, but not in the bone. General Linear Modelling revealed significant temporal changes in gene expression following leucine injection including the tissue-specific markers sparc, bglap (bone), mlc2 and myod2 (muscle) and gene transcripts associated with Pi3k/Akt/mTor signalling, p70sk6, akt2, ampka and mtor. Skeletal muscle showed more pronounced and rapid changes in transcript abundance than the bone to the same pro-growth signal. The observed differences in transcriptional response are consistent with the idea that fast growth results in a miss-match between muscle and bone development and may contribute to a higher incidence of skeletal deformities.
Contributors:Jennifer Levering, Tomas Fiedler, Antje Sieg, Koen W.A. van Grinsven, Silvio Hering, Nadine Veith, Brett G. Olivier, Lara Klett, Jeroen Hugenholtz, Bas Teusink, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Ursula Kummer
Genome-scale metabolic models comprise stoichiometric relations between metabolites, as well as associations between genes and metabolic reactions and facilitate the analysis of metabolism. We computationally reconstructed the metabolic network of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes M49. Initially, we based the reconstruction on genome annotations and already existing and curated metabolic networks of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis. This initial draft was manually curated with the final reconstruction accounting for 480 genes associated with 576 reactions and 558 metabolites. In order to constrain the model further, we performed growth experiments of wild type and arcA deletion strains of S. pyogenes M49 in a chemically defined medium and calculated nutrient uptake and production fluxes. We additionally performed amino acid auxotrophy experiments to test the consistency of the model. The established genome-scale model can be used to understand the growth requirements of the human pathogen S. pyogenes and define optimal and suboptimal conditions, but also to describe differences and similarities between S. pyogenes and related lactic acid bacteria such as L. lactis in order to find strategies to reduce the growth of the pathogen and propose drug targets.
Contributors:Daniel Däumer, Markus Seifert, Wladimir Reschetilowski
An H-ZSM-5 zeolite (Si/Al = 12) was treated with solutions of tartaric acid, citric acid and EDTA. The impact of this treatment on the durability in the conversion of ethanol was investigated and correlated with the extraction of small amounts of aluminium. M06-L/6-31G(d) was applied as level of theory for the quantum chemical part of this work. These investigations showed that all EFSPE can be regarded as solvable and hence also as removable. By solid state characterisations (NMR, IR, XRD) no changes in the bulk properties were observed, although catalytic testings of the treated samples showed significant durability improvements. This ostensible contradiction can be explained by a changed ethene supply to the hydrocarbon pool after the removal of EFSPE acting as active sites which catalyse only dehydration reactions.
Nitrogen dioxide, 14N16O2, line positions and intensities calculated by us based on a “local” effective operator method are compared to the recent results of the “global” calculation. The comparison was made for theoretical absorption coefficients in the spectral range of 600–3700cm−1 using the measured data taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In order to conduct the calculations, empirical parameters of the effective rotational Hamiltonian of the twenty-one vibrational states were applied from the most recent experimental works. The second order parameters of the dipole moment function of 14N16O2 were determined for the first time. The “local” line list in this research consists of one hundred and four bands and includes the line intensities of the v1+v2+v3 band of 14N16O2 that have not yet been investigated in the literature. Among these bands, only eleven bands are included in HITRAN2012. The reasons behind the disagreements between the theoretical and measured absorption coefficients of 14N16O2 are discussed.
Contributors:Nichole Fairbrother, Patricia Janssen, Martin M. Antony, Emma Tucker, Allan H. Young
Anxiety and related disorders (AD) disproportionately affect women, and are the most prevalent of all mental health conditions. The current research represents the first study of maternal postpartum AD prevalence in which all of the AD are assessed, and one of few studies of this type in which maternal prenatal AD incidence is assessed.
Contributors:Ewan Harney, Bruno Dubief, Pierre Boudry, Olivier Basuyaux, Markus B. Schilhabel, Sylvain Huchette, Christine Paillard, Flavia L.D. Nunes
The European abalone Haliotis tuberculata is a delicacy and consequently a commercially valuable gastropod species. Aquaculture production and wild populations are subjected to multiple climate-associated stressors and anthropogenic pressures, including rising sea-surface temperatures, ocean acidification and an emerging pathogenic Vibrio infection. Transcript expression data provides a valuable resource for understanding abalone responses to variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. To generate an extensive transcriptome, we performed next-generation sequencing of RNA on larvae exposed to temperature and pH variation and on haemolymph of adults from two wild populations after experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. We obtained more than 1.5 billion raw paired-end reads, which were assembled into 328,519 contigs. Filtration and clustering produced a transcriptome of 41,099 transcripts, of which 10,626 (25.85%) were annotated with Blast hits, and 7380 of these were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in Blast2Go. A differential expression analysis comparing all samples from the two life stages identified 5690 and 10,759 transcripts with significantly higher expression in larvae and adult haemolymph respectively. This is the greatest sequencing effort yet in the Haliotis genus, and provides the first high-throughput transcriptomic resource for H. tuberculata.
Contributors:D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, Keeyoon Sung, Linda R. Brown, Charles E. Miller, Vivienne H. Payne, Brian J. Drouin, Shanshan Yu, Timothy J. Crawford, Arlan W. Mantz, Mary Ann H. Smith, Robert R. Gamache
This study reports the results from analyzing a number of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra in the 2.06-μm spectral region for pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 in dry air. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique has been used to retrieve the various spectral line parameters. The dataset includes 27 spectra: ten pure CO2, two 99% 13C-enriched CO2 and fifteen spectra of mixtures of 12C-enriched CO2 in dry air. The spectra were recorded at various gas sample temperatures between 170 and 297K. The absorption path lengths range from 0.347 to 49m. The sample pressures for the pure CO2 spectra varied from 1.1 to 594Torr; for the two 13CO2 spectra the pressures were ∼10 and 146Torr. For the air-broadened spectra, the pressures of the gas mixtures varied between 200 and 711Torr with CO2 volume mixing ratios ranging from 0.014% to 0.203%. The multispectrum fitting technique was applied to fit simultaneously all these spectra to retrieve consistent set of line positions, intensities, and line shape parameters including their temperature dependences; for this, the Voigt line shape was modified to include line mixing (via the relaxation matrix formalism) and quadratic speed dependence. The new results are compared to select published values, including recent ab initio calculations. These results are required to retrieve the column averaged dry air mole fraction (XCO2) from space-based observations, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite mission that NASA launched in July 2014.
Contributors:J. El Romh, P. Cacciani, F. Taher, P. Čermák, J. Cosléou, M. Khelkhal
The spectrum of 15NH3 has been investigated at room temperature in the 6367–6578cm−1 region using an external cavity tunable diode laser spectrometer. Particular care was taken to discriminate 15NH3 from the main species 14NH3 present as an impurity in the spectra. As a result, a new list of line positions and line strengths has been proposed for this isotopologue. Together 3002 transitions have been observed, and their line strengths extending on four orders of magnitudes were derived.
Contributors:Catherine Bourguinat, Hua Che, Thangadurai Mani, Kathy Keller, Roger K. Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode causing infection and heartworm disease in dogs and other canids, cats, and occasionally in humans. Prevention with macrocyclic lactones (ML) is recommended during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been reported. ABC-B transporter genes are thought to be involved in the mechanism of ML resistance in other nematodes. This study aimed to identify all the ABC-B transporter genes in D. immitis using as a reference the nDi.2.2 D. immitis whole genome, which is not completely annotated. Using bioinformatic tools and PCR amplification on pooled D. immitis genomic DNA and on pooled cDNA, nine ABC transporter genes including one pseudogene were characterized. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses allowed identification of three P-glycoproteins (Pgps) (Dim-pgp-3 Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11), of two ABC-B half transporter genes (one ortholog of Cel-haf-4 and Cel-haf-9; and one ortholog of Cel-haf-1 and Cel-haf-3), of one ABC half transporter gene (ortholog of Cel-haf-5) that contained an ABC-C motif, and of one additional half transporter that would require functional study for characterization. The number of ABC-B transporter genes identified was lower than in Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus. Further studies are needed to understand their possible role in ML resistance in D. immitis. These ABC transporters constitute a base for ML resistance investigation in D. immitis and advance our understanding of the molecular biology of this parasite.