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A method is described for the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric (ICP-OES) determination of rare earth elements (REE), yttrium (Y), thorium (Th) and phosphorus (P) in monazite samples. Sample preparation was carried out by fuming with sulphuric acid followed by fluoride fusion of the remaining residue. The method was validated using the single laboratory approach by assessment of analytical performance characteristics like specificity, linearity, range, accuracy and precision. Spectral interferences were observed in the case of some heavy REE (Ho,Er,Tm) by light REE (Nd) and correction factors were deduced and applied. The limit of quantification, instrument linearity and the method range were evaluated. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from 2.6 to 10.2 % were obtained for repeatability studies and RSD values ranging from 1.7 to 11.1% for intra-lab reproducibility studies. Accuracy was established by application to a monazite certified reference material (CRM) and also through comparison of results obtained by present method with those obtained by an alternate method. The validation results were compliant with the acceptance criteria for the various parameters assessed. A simple procedure has been described for the estimation of associated measurement uncertainty using the GUM “bottom-up” modelling approach and results presented in this paper. The validated method was applied to the determination of REE, Y, Th and P in some monazite samples from India.
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In the present study, addition of nitroso group at position 1 of 2-aminoanthraquinone (1) to yield 2-amino-1-nitroanthraquinone (2) was carried out by the reaction of compound (1) with sodium nitrite in water. Compound (2) was used as starting material to produce many new naphtho[2,3-f] quinoxaline-dione, trione, naphtho-pyrazole quinoxaline-dione, anthra-triazine-dione, naphtho-thiazole quinoxaline-dione and anthrabenzo-triazepine-dione derivatives by elimination of one molecule of water as an initial reaction step. The reacting moieties were nitroso and amino function groups to yield a series of compounds. The structures of the products were determined by elemental mass, IR and 1H NMR analysis and the adopted method is efficient to prepare a series of compounds and could possibly be used for the synthesis of new compounds.
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In the present study, addition of nitroso group at position 1 of 2-aminoanthraquinone (1) to yield 2-amino-1-nitroanthraquinone (2) was carried out by the reaction of compound (1) with sodium nitrite in water. Compound (2) was used as starting material to produce many new naphtho[2,3-f] quinoxaline-dione, trione, naphtho-pyrazole quinoxaline-dione, anthra-triazine-dione, naphtho-thiazole quinoxaline-dione and anthrabenzo-triazepine-dione derivatives by elimination of one molecule of water as an initial reaction step. The reacting moieties were nitroso and amino function groups to yield a series of compounds. The structures of the products were determined by elemental mass, IR and 1H NMR analysis and the adopted method is efficient to prepare a series of compounds and could possibly be used for the synthesis of new compounds.
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Packaging in bread-making industry is one of priorities to satisfy the peculiar requirements of freshness in bread. A suitable packaging material allows for both rapid heat exchange with the environment and water vapour evaporation in order to prevent condensation inside the bread package. The effectiveness of some storage media/packaging materials in preventing bread spoilage under ambient temperature was studied. Bread staling, microbiological stability and organoleptic changes were evaluated as a function of storage time. The functional properties (water and oil absorption capacities and water oil absorption indices) of the bread were estimated .The water absorption capacity (WAC) of bread was in the range of 144-221 g/100 g sample, while the oil absorption capacity (OAC) range was 113-132 g/100 g. Water Oil Absorption Capacity (WOAI) for each of the packaging materials was < 2.0, which indicates the lipophilic nature. All the bread slices stored under different media/packaging materials, except perforated bowl and transparent plastic bowl exhibited sensory scores of 2.5 and above. Microbial growth manifested in bread kept in perforated and transparent plastic containers compared to the bread kept in cellophane and aluminum plate. This study clearly shows differences in the rates of staling, microbial stability and physical/chemical changes at different storage conditions.
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Aqueous extract of Thevetia peruviana leaves were investigated as corrosion inhibitor for API 5L X80 pipeline steel in 1M H2SO4 solution using electrochemical and gravimetric techniques. The results reveal that T. peruviana inhibited the X80 pipeline steel corrosion in the acid medium in a concentration dependent manner. Potentiodynamic polarization results showed T. peruviana to be a mixed type inhibitor in 1M H2SO4 environment, whereas the impedance results revealed adsorption of the inhibitor species on the steel surface. The gravimetric results reveal that the adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor on the steel surface was chemisorption. The adsorption was in accordance with Freundlich adsorption isotherm and negative standard adsorption energy (Δ𝐺o𝑎𝑑𝑠) obtained inferred that the adsorption was spontaneous and the interaction between the inhibitive molecules was found to be repulsive. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the formation of adsorbed film on the X80 pipeline steel surface. Results revealed that T. peruviana has potential to inhibit the correction and could possibly be used for corrosion inhibition in the acidic environment of steel.
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Supplementary data from the following publication: Keating, J.N., Sansom, R.S., Sutton, M.D., Knight, Chris G., and Garwood, R.J. Morphological phylogenetics evaluated using novel evolutionary simulations. Systematic Biology. This comprises: exemplar outputs from both the TREvoSim and MBL2017 software; the R functions employed herein for node-based distance measures; the scripts used for analysis for this study; output codes for the current study for use with the TREvoSim logging system, and the modified source code for the USPR software used herein. USPR was coded by Chris Whidden and Frederick Matsen, and published under a GNU liscense. The software is described in the following publication: Whidden C., Matsen F. 2018. Calculating the Unrooted Subtree Prune-and-Regraft Distance. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. 16(3):898–911.
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Sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs) were prepared using rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves aqueous extract and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3.5H2O) at room temperature. The S-NPs were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The sulfur nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with average size of 40 nm. The morphology of S-NPs could be controlled by tuning the amount of rosemary leaves aqueous extract and sulfur ions. The cytotoxic effects of the S-NPs on hatching of second stage root-knot and mortality of second stage of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) were tested. These results confirmed that the S-NPs synthesized using rosemary leaves aqueous extract and could possibility be used as anti-nematocide to manage M. javanica infestation.
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There are 31 participants, and the data collected in our lab (MAE104 – Clifton, Nottingham Trent University) from Oct 2018 to Dec 2018. We used our devices which are EEG, fNIRS for recording physiological data, and laparoscopic trainer box to perform basic laparoscopic tasks. The laparoscopic tasks are the Ring Transfer and Threading tasks. The Ring Transfer task involved grasping, lifting and relocating rings from one rod to another using both surgical instruments and was performed on a ring stack base (Inovus Medical, St Helens, UK). Four rods were selected and labelled A, B, C and D, at the left-hand bottom, top left-hand, top right-hand and bottom right-hand corners on the ring stack base respectively. Four rings were initially put over rod A at the beginning of the trial. The procedure includes picking up a ring from rod A and placing it onto rod B with the left-hand only. After transferring all four rings to rod B, participants used their left-hand only to grasp and lift up each ring, pass it to the right-hand and place it on rod C. The procedure was completed by moving the rings individually from rod C to D using the right-hand only. Threading task consisted of passing a piece of string through the holes in a pre-determined order. The holes were labelled 1-7 in a zigzag pattern on the Threading base. Participants could use both surgical tools, however, no restriction was made on the use of right, left or both hands.
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Plants are frequently utilized as biological indicators for the extent of air pollution. They are organisms that are sensitive to pollutants in the air and many studies are focused on the morphological, physiological, and histochemical effects of air pollutants on plants. Various experiments have been conducted to explain the interaction of plants and those pollutants. Deciduous tree plant species growing naturally in Bulgaria, such as Acer campestre L. (field maple), A. tataricum L. (tatarian maple), and four cultivated: A. negundo L. (box elder), A. saccharinum L. (silver sycamore), Morus alba L. (white mulberry), and Platanus acerifolia Willd. (London plane) have been investigated. There were found increasing the formation of Ca-oxalate crystals in the lamellae of Morus alba L. under polluted air conditions or scattering of them in a different way in Acer negundo L. The most pronounced depositions of different types of calcium crystals were observed in the most resistant to pollution and dry environment species Morus alba L. Further investigations are needed to specify the relation between biomineralization and specific environmental conditions.
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