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  • Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 2001, Stratospheric Harbingers of Anomalous Weather Regimes. Science, 294, 581-584;Baldwin M., T.J. Durkenton, 1999, Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30973-30946.Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1985: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.Barriopedro D. et al., 2008, Solar modulation of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking, Journal of Geophisical Research, Vol. 113, D14118.Locwood M. et al., 2010, Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 5, 2.Liu Z. et al., 2014, Solar cycle modulation of the Pacific–North American teleconnection influence on North American winter climate, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 9, 2.Schwander M. et al., 2017, Reconstruction of Central European daily weather types back to 1763. International Journal of Climatology, 37(Suppl.1): 30–44 (2017)Lockwood M., Owens M. J., 2014, Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux and streamer belt width: 3. Modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119, 5193–5209.Graf Hans‐F., Walter Katrin, 2005, Polar vortex controls coupling of North Atlantic Ocean and atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L01704. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): surface sea-level pressure difference between the Subtropical (Azores) High and the Subpolar Low. It is widely accepted that NAO variability has strong impact on weather circulations over Europe and US. Major stratospheric events have a significant impact on NAO. Data set: (1949-2017) from ESRL-NOAA.
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