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ChIP-seq was performed using Drosophila Kc167 cells using antibodies against H3K4me3 to identify active promoters and H3K4me1 to identify active enhancers. H3K27ac ChIPseq was performed to identify active promoters and enhancers. Once enhancers and promoters were identified, JIL-1 and histone phosphorylation, H3K9acS10ph and H3K27acS28ph, ChIP-seq was performed to look at binding trends. JIL-1 and phosphoacetlation is found at low levels at inactive enhancers and shows increase at active enhancers and promoters. Here we examine histone phosphorylation by JIL-1 and acetylation of H3K27ac by CBP at transcriptionally active vs. inactive promoters and enhancers. ChIP-seq is performed in Kc167 Drosophila cells using antibodies against JIL-1, H3K27acS28ph, H3K9acS10ph, H3K4me3, H3K4me1, and H3K27ac.
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Mono-methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27ac) are histone modifications that are highly enriched over the body of actively transcribed genes and enhancers. Although in yeast all H3K4 methylation patterns including H3K4me1 are implemented by Set1/COMPASS, there are three classes of COMPASS-like complexes in Drosophila that could carry out H3K4me1 on enhancers: dSet1, Trithorax and Trithorax-related (Trr). Here, we report that Trr, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Mll3/4, can function as a major H3K4 mono-methyltransferase on enhancers in vivo. Loss of Trr results in a global decrease of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac in various tissues. Assays with the cut wing margin enhancer imply a functional role for Trr in enhancer-mediated processes. A genome-wide analysis demonstrates that Trr is required for H3K4me1 and H3K27ac on chromatin signatures that resemble the histone modification patterns described for enhancers. Since Trr and mammalian Mll3/4 complexes are distinguished by bearing a unique subunit, the H3K27 demethylase UTX, we propose a model in which the H3K4 mono-methyltransferase Trr, and the H3K27 demethylase, UTX, cooperate to regulate the transition from inactive/poised to active enhancers. ChIP-seq of Trr, LPT, UTX in Drosophila S2 Cells. ChIP-seq of H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27ac, H3K27me3 in WT and Trr knock-down Drosophila S2 cells. ChIP-seq of H3K4me1, H3K27me3 in LPT knock-down Drosophila S2 cells. ChIP-seq of LPT and UTX in Trr knock-down Drosophila S2 cells. ChIP-seq of H3K4me1 and H3K27me3 in MLL1(+/+), MLL1(-/-), MLL3(+/+), and MLL3(-/-) Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs).
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We report the evolutionary behaviour of Polycomb group proteins, their recruitment factors and their underlying sequences by performing ChIP-seq analysis in 4-5 different Drosophila species. We demonstrate an extremely high conservation of Polycomb repressive domains across Drosophila species We validate few cases of PRE divergence that shows that cis-driven PRE evolution is a rare event. We further show that PHO recruitment to Polycomb domains is evolutionarily robust to motif changes and that PRC1 stabilizes binding of its key recruiter ChIP-seq analysis of histone marks and chromatin associated factors across 4-5 Drosophila species
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We report the usage of ChIP-mass spectrometry in identifying proteins and histone modifications involved in Drosophila dosage compensation. We identified a chromatin targeting factor, CG4747, that is involved in recognition of H3K36me3 and robust recruitment of the Drosophila MSL complex to its correct targets on the male X chromosome. ChIP-seq with PAP antibody of Drosophila larvae expressing C-terminally TAP-tagged CG4747.
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Genomic enhancers regulate spatio-temporal gene expression by recruiting specific combinations of transcription factors (TFs). When TFs are bound to active regulatory regions, they displace canonical nucleosomes, making these regions biochemically detectable as nucleosome-depleted regions or accessible/open chromatin. Here we ask whether open chromatin profiling can be used to identify the entire repertoire of active promoters and enhancers underlying tissue-specific gene expression during normal development and oncogenesis in vivo. To this end, we first compare two different approaches to detect open chromatin in vivo using the Drosophila eye primordium as a model system: FAIRE-seq, based on physical separation of open versus closed chromatin; and ATAC-seq, based on preferential integration of a transposon into open chromatin. We find that both methods reproducibly capture the tissue-specific chromatin activity of regulatory regions, including promoters, enhancers, and insulators. Using both techniques, we screened for regulatory regions that become ectopically active during Ras-dependent oncogenesis, and identified 3778 regions that become (over-)activated during tumor development. Next, we applied motif discovery to search for candidate transcription factors that could bind these regions and identified AP-1 and Stat92E as key regulators. We validated the importance of Stat92E in the development of the tumors by introducing a loss of function Stat92E mutant, which was sufficient to rescue the tumor phenotype. Additionally we tested if the predicted Stat92E responsive regulatory regions are genuine, using ectopic induction of JAK/STAT signaling in developing eye discs, and observed that similar chromatin changes indeed occurred. Finally, we determine that these are functionally significant regulatory changes, as nearby target genes are up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, we show that FAIRE-seq and ATAC-seq based open chromatin profiling, combined with motif discovery, is a straightforward approach to identify functional genomic regulatory regions, master regulators, and gene regulatory networks controlling complex in vivo processes. FAIRE-Seq in Drosophila wild type eye-antennal imaginal discs (2 wt strains); ATAC-Seq in Drosophila wild type eye-antennal imaginal discs (3 wt strains) ; FAIRE-Seq in Drosophila Ras/Scrib induced eye disc tumors (1 early and 1 late); ATAC-Seq in Drosophila Ras/Scrib induced eye disc tumors (1 early and 1 late); ATAC-Seq in Drosophila eye discs with Unpaired over-expression (2 biological replicates); CTCF ChIP-seq in Drosophila eye discs; ChIP-seq input in Drosophila eye discs
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We use male gonads isolated from a Drosophila strain that allows us to obtain enough cells at their primitive status as the starting material to study the endogenous chromatin structure of undifferentiated cells using ChIP-seq. We integrate the ChIP-seq data with RNA-seq data that measures the transcriptome in a digital manner. Our genome-wide analyses indicate that the majority of differentiation genes in undifferentiated cells lack an active chromatin mark and paused Pol II; instead, they are associated with either the repressive H3K27me3 mark or no detectable mark. In order to address the possibility that distinct techniques are responsible for such a difference, we also use the Drosophila S2 cells to perform ChIP-seq and RNA-seq and compare the results directly with published work using ChIP-chip and microarray on S2 cells. For the S2 cell ChIP-chip data, we used data from the following paper: Muse GW, Gilchrist DA, Nechaev S, Shah R, Parker JS, Grissom SF, Zeitlinger J, Adelman K: RNA polymerase is poised for activation across the genome. /Nat Genet /2007, 39(12):1507-1511. The accession number for this data is: GSE6714. ChIP-seq: Profiling chromatin modifications using antibodies against 3 histone modifications and RNA Pol II in S2 cells Profiling chromatin structure in bam testis using antibodies against 3 histone modifications and RNA Pol II RNA-seq: Profiling transcriptome of S2 cells using RNA-seq
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High-resolution genome-wide binding of Yan used to confirm the presence of high-density regions seen in ChIP-chip ChIP-Seq of Yan protein in stage 11 Drosophila embryos
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ChIP-Seq profiles of MSL1, MSL2, MSl3, MOF, MLE, H4K16ac and RNA Polymerase II phosphorlyated on Serine 5 in Drosophila S2 cells MSL1, MSL2, MSL3, MOF, MLE, H4K16ac and RNA Polymerase II phosphorlyated on Serine 5 ChIP in Drosophila S2 cells. 1-3 biological replicates per experiment. Performed in single-read and paired-end read mode.
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This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE33546: Polycomb repressive complex 2-dependent and –independent functions of Jarid2 in transcriptional regulation in Drosophila [ChIP-Seq] GSE36038: Polycomb repressive complex 2-dependent and –independent functions of Jarid2 in transcriptional regulation in Drosophila [Affymetrix] Refer to individual Series
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains ChIP-seq data generated on Solexa Genome Analyzer for 6 Histone modifications (H3K9me3, H3K27me3, H3K4me3, H3K4me1, H3K27Ac, H3K9Ac), PolII and CBP/p300. Each factor has been studied for 12 different time-points of Drosophila development. Keywords: Epigenetics For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf For each combination of time-point and antibody, triplicate ChIP experiments have been performed and hybridized on Agilent 244K arrays. The hybridizations have been verified by sequencing one replicate of IP and one replicate of Input following Solexa sequencing procedure.
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