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L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen cv, Gifu were initially obtained from Prof. Jens Stougaard (University Aarhus, Denmark) and then self-propagated at the University of Seville. Seeds were scarified and surface-sterilized, germinated in 1% agar Petri dishes, and transferred to pots using a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of vermiculite and sand as solid support. Five seedlings were planted in each pot and grown during 35 days in a growth chamber under 16/8 hours day/night, 20/18�C, with a photosynthetic photon flux density of 250 �mol/m2�s and a constant humidity of 70%. Plants were watered with Hornum nutrient solution. Drought was applied withholding irrigation for the reported period of time and sample plants or leaves were harvested for further analysis.
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Soybean's productivity is significantly compromised by soil salinity, but, like most plants, it has evolved a variety of mechanisms to aid its survival under environmental stress. The expression of many plant genes is altered by salinity stress. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression and identified distinct up or down-regulated genes between salinity stressed and non stressed soybean Seedlings of the soybean cultivar Williams 82 were grown in vermiculite under a 16h photoperiod at 25 ºC for 14 days. RNA were isolated from the mock (M0, M1, M3, M6, M12, M24) and salinity treated (S0, S1, S3, S6, S12, S24) seedlings. 0.5 µg RNA that extracted from each time point of the mock and salinity-stressed seedlings were mixed respectively to obtain the mock and salinity-stressed RNA pools, and then they were used to synthesize the cDNA. The cDNA was labeled with biotin, and then hybridized to an Affymetrix soybean Genome Array.
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Senescence is genetically-controlled and activated in mature tissues during ageing. However, immature plant tissues also display senescence-like symptoms when continuously exposed to adverse energy-depleting conditions. We used detached dark-held immature inflorescences of Arabidopsis thaliana to understand the metabolic reprogramming occurring in immature tissues transitioning from rapid growth to precocious senescence. Macroscopic growth of the detached inflorescences rapidly ceased upon placement in water in the dark at 21°C. Inflorescences were completely de-greened by 120 h of dark incubation and by 24 h had already lost 24% of their chlorophyll and 34% of their protein content. Comparative transcriptome profiling at 24 h revealed that inflorescences response at 24 h had a large carbon-deprivation component. Genes that positively regulate developmental senescence (ANAC092) and shade avoidance syndrome (PIF4 and PIF5) were up-regulated within 24 h. Mutations in these genes delayed de-greening of the inflorescences. Their up-regulation was suppressed in dark-held inflorescences by glucose treatment, which promoted macroscopic growth and development and inhibited de-greening of the inflorescences. Detached inflorescences held in the dark for 4 days were still able to re-initiat development to produce siliques upon being brought out to light indicating the transcriptional reprogramming at 24 h was adaptive and reversible. Our results suggest that the response of detached immature tissues to dark storage involves interactions between carbohydrate status sensing and light deprivation signaling and that the dark adaptive response of the tissues appears to utilize some of the same key regulators as developmental senescence. Detached arabidopsis inflorescences were harvested and either immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C, or placed at 21°C on blotting paper moistened with water inside a 2-L black plastic container for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Ten inflorescences from 10 independent plants were pooled for each time point (0 h or 24 h).
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Analysis used total RNA samples of individual brains of low hygienic strain worker bees that were derived from experimental colonies combined of low hygienic genotypes (L pure colonies) resp. low and high hygienic genotypes (L/H mixed colonies). Four-condition experiment: individuals that did perform hygienic behavior (uncapping) vs individuals that did not perform hygienic behavior (non-hygienic); individuals from L pure colonies vs individuals from L/H mixed colonies. A total of 76 biological replicates was analyzed, subdivided into 24 individuals that did perform hygienic behavior in mixed colonies; 24 individuals that did perform hygienic behavior in pure colonies; 14 individuals that did not perform hygienic behavior in mixed colonies; 14 individuals that did not perform hygienic behavior in pure colonies. Each individual brain RNA sample was divided into two subsamples labeled with cy3 resp. cy5. Loop Design was applied so that each individual brain sample was directly compared to at least two other samples.
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Otitis media, pneumonia, sinusitis and as well as severe diseases such as meningitis and bacteraemia are related to biofilm-like diseases, in which Streptococcus pneumoniae demonstrated differential and tissue specific gene expressions. In this study, we reported the differential gene expression profile of early in vitro biofilm and planktonic cell in c-DNA microarray analysis. The microarray analysis was performed on total RNA extracted from biofilms grown in 24-well microtiter plate and mid-log grown planktonic cells. To validate the results of microarray, real-time RT-PCR was performed on 13 differentially expressed genes and one constitutively expressed gene from six different functional groups. cDNA-microarray analyses indicated 89 genes that were significantly differentially expressed in biofilm and planktonic cells. Among total differentially expressed gene, almost 50% were hypothetical genes. Of the 46 protein coding genes, 34 showed up-regulation and 16 showed down-regulation in biofilm. The functional annotation showed that many functional categories were differentially regulated in biofilm and planktonic cells, such as genes involve in purine, pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism, RNA/DNA metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation, transporter protein, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, isoprenoid biosynthesis, transcription regulator and cellular process. Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 strain used in this is an unencapsulated and avirulent strain derived from encapsulated serotype 2 pathogenic strain D39. In vitro biofilm formation was carried out in 24-well, flat-bottom, polystyrene microtiter plate (BD falcon, MD, USA) in static model. S. pneumoniae grown up to mid-logarithmic phase in TSB medium was diluted 1:100 with fresh sterile TSB medium supplied with 1% glucose, inoculated 1.5 mL in 24-well microtiter plate and, incubated for 15 hours at 37°C in 5% CO2. After incubation medium was discarded, and the plates were gently washed three times with 1.5 mL sterile, cold phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Adherent cell were scraped and immediately processed for RNA extraction. For planktonic cells RNA extraction, five ml of mid-logarithmic phase cell suspension was pelleted by centrifugation and wash three times with sterile PBS and immediately processed for RNA extraction. All experiments were performed in triplicate (3 independent biological replicates)
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Germinal centers (GC) arise within B cell follicles upon antigenic challenge. In the dark zones (DZ) of GCs, B cells proliferate and hypermutate their immunoglobulin genes, and mutants with increased affinity are positively selected in the light zone (LZ) to either differentiate into plasma and memory cells, or re-enter the DZ for further refinement. However, the molecular circuits governing GC positive selection are not known. Here, we show that the GC reaction requires the biphasic regulation of c-MYC expression, involving its transient induction during early GC commitment, its repression by BCL6 in DZ B cells, and its re-induction in a subpopulation of positively selected LZ B cells destined to DZ re-entry. Accordingly, acute disruption of MYC function in vivo leads to GC collapse, indicating an essential role in GC physiology. These results have implications for our understanding of GC selection and the role of MYC deregulation in B cell lymphomas. We used microarrays to determine the global gene expression programs that distinguish MYC+ GC B cells from their MYC- negative counterparts. GFPMYC+ and GFPMYC- GC B cell subpopulations were collected by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) from B cell enriched fractions of splenic mononuclear cell pools of GFPMYC knock-in mice (12 days after SRBC immunization). 5-20ng of total RNA (RIN>9) for each sample was used as a template for linear cDNA amplification (Ovation RNA amplification Kit, NuGen). cDNA was labeled using the Encore Biotin Labeling Kit (NuGen) and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse 430.2 gene expression arrays.
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Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were isolated from human bone marrow. Here, we have compared gene expression profiles of MSC at early and late passages. Long-term culture associated gene expression changes were then correlated with DNA-methylation profiles. The goal of this study was to determine if senescence-associated DNA-methylation (SA-DNAm) changes are reflected by differential gene expression. Overall, genes with SA-DNAm changes (particularly with SA-hypomethylation) were detected at low level and seemed to be scarcely expressed at early and late passages. MSC were isolated from three different donors and culture expanded until replicative senescence. Gene expression profiles were compared at early and late passage using GeneChip Humang Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix). Six hybridizations are included in this series.
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Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) is an epigenetic phenomenon. We have reprogrammed mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from human bone marrow by retrovirus-mediated overexpression of OCT-3/4, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4. This series summarizes gene expression profiles of eight iP-MSC clones derived from three different donors. These datasets were subsequently used for PluriTest analysis (Muller FJ, Schuldt B et al., Nat. Methods 2011; 8: 315-317) demonstrating that all iP-MSC clones were clearly associated with pluripotent cells. Eight iP-MSC clones derived from three different donors.
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The pediatric tumor neuroblastoma is the second cause of cancer-related death in children. Although several recurrent gene aberrations have been found, the main signaling networks in the neuroblastoma cell, that can give important clues for more specific, more efficient treatment, is still unknown. Here we demonstrate an analysis of the MEIS1 pathway in neuroblastic tumors. It suggests important regulatory connections to tumor differentiation, cell cycle, and cell death. Time-course experiment of MEIS1-shRNA induction, with 5 timepoints.
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Introduction: The kidney is the major arbiter of extracellular phosphate homeostasis. The vast majority of glomerular filtrated phosphate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Posttransplant phosphaturia is common and aggravated by sirolimus immunosuppression. The cause of sirolimus induced phosphaturia however remains elusive. Results: The urine phosphate/creatinine ratio was higher and serum phosphate was lower in sirolimus treated rats, fractional excretion of phosphate was elevated and renal tubular phosphate reabsorption was reduced suggesting a renal cause for hypophosphatemia. PTH was lower in sirolimus treated rats. FGF 23 levels were unchanged at day 2 but lower in sirolimus treated rats after 7 days. Brush border membrane vesicle phosphate uptake was not altered in sirolimus treated groups or by direct incubation with sirolimus. mRNA, protein abundance, and subcellular transporter distribution of NaPi-IIa, Pit-2 and NHE3 were not different between groups but NaPi-IIc mRNA expression was lower at day 7. Transcriptome analyses revealed candidate genes that could be involved in the phosphaturic response. Discussion: Sirolimus caused a selective renal phosphate leakage which was not mediated by NaPi-IIa or NaPi-IIc regulation or localization. We hypothesize that another mechanism such as a basolateral phosphate transporter may be responsible for the sirolimus induced phosphaturia. Male Wistar rats received sirolimus or vehicle for 7 days (1.5mg/kg) and were placed in individual metabolic cages for eight days allowing a 24 hour adaption period to the metabolic cage environment. At the end of the experiments rats were anesthetized by inhalation of Isoflurane/air and blood samples and kidneys were collected. 4 cases (sirolimus) and 4 controls (vehicle) have been analysed
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