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In this paper we redescribe the type species of Mago O. Pickard-Cambridge, M. intentus O. Pickard-Cambridge, and describe Mago brimodes Ruiz & Maddison sp. nov. from Ecuador. Based on both morphological features and the 16SND1 gene region, we concluded that the larger spiders traditionally identified as Mago, such as Mago acutidens Simon and related species, are not closely related to the small dark M. intentus (type species) and M. brimodes. Matinta Ruiz & Maddison gen. nov. is therefore proposed to hold most species previously included in Mago. The following species are transferred from Mago to the new genus: Matinta acutidens (Simon, 1900) comb. nov. (type species), Matinta apophysis (Costa & Ruiz, 2017) comb. nov., Matinta balbina (Patello & Ruiz, 2014) comb. nov., Matinta chickeringi (Caporiacco, 1954) comb. nov., Matinta delicata (Patello & Ruiz, 2014) comb. nov., Matinta fasciata (Mello-Leitão, 1940) comb. nov., Matinta fonsecai (Soares & Camargo, 1948) comb. nov., Matinta furcata (Costa & Ruiz, 2017) comb. nov., Matinta jurutiensis (Patello & Ruiz, 2014) comb. nov., Matinta longidens (Simon, 1900) comb. nov., Matinta mimica (Costa & Ruiz, 2017) comb. nov., Matinta opiparis (Simon, 1900) comb. nov., Matinta pardo (Costa & Ruiz, 2017) comb. nov., Matinta procax (Simon, 1900) comb. nov., Matinta saperda (Simon, 1900) comb. nov., Matinta silvae (Crane, 1943) comb. nov., Matinta similis (Patello & Ruiz, 2014) comb. nov., Matinta steindachneri (Taczanowski, 1878) comb. nov. and Matinta vicana (Simon, 1900) comb. nov. Mago dentichelis Crane, 1949 is transferred to Noegus Simon.
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Many studies document negative inbreeding effects on individuals, and conservation efforts to preserve rare species routinely employ strategies to reduce inbreeding. Despite this, there are few clear examples in nature of inbreeding decreasing the growth rates of populations, and the extent of population-level effects of inbreeding in the wild remains controversial. Here we take advantage of a long-term data set of 26 reintroduced Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) populations spanning nearly 100 years to show that inbreeding substantially reduced per capita population growth rates, particularly for populations in harsher environments. Populations with high average inbreeding (F ≈ 0.2) had population growth rates reduced by 71% compared to populations with no inbreeding. Our results show that inbreeding can have long-term demographic consequences even when environmental variation is large and deleterious alleles may have been purged during bottlenecks. Thus, efforts to guard against inbreeding effects in populations of endangered species have not been misplaced.
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Parasitic plants in the genus Striga, commonly known as witchweeds, cause major crop losses in sub-Saharan Africa and pose a threat to agriculture worldwide. An understanding of Striga parasite biology, which could lead to agricultural solutions, has been hampered by the lack of genome information. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Striga asiatica with 34,577 predicted protein-coding genes, which reflects gene family contractions and expansions that are consistent with a three-phase model of parasitic plant genome evolution. Striga seeds germinate in response to host-derived strigolactones (SLs) and then develop a specialised penetration structure, the haustorium, to invade the host root. A family of SL receptors has undergone a striking expansion, suggesting a molecular basis for the evolution of broad host range among Striga spp. We found that genes involved in lateral root development in non-parasitic model species are coordinately induced during haustorium development in Striga, suggesting a pathway that was partly co-opted during the evolution of the haustorium. In addition, we found evidence for horizontal transfer of host genes as well as retrotransposons, indicating gene flow to S. asiatica from hosts. Our results provide valuable insights into the evolution of parasitism and a key resource for the future development of Striga control strategies.
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  • Sequencing Data
  • Tabular Data
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Heliozelidae are a cosmopolitan family of small, day-flying moths, and include some pest species of commercial crops. Overall, the family is poorly known and lacks a well-resolved phylogeny. Previous molecular and taxonomic work has revealed rich undescribed diversity within the family, particularly in Australia; however, the relationships amongst the major clades or genera were not resolved. We therefore sequenced the transcriptomes of 39 taxa, representing all major genera of Heliozelidae, and seven outgroups representing most other Adeloidea families and the putative sister superfamily, Andesianoidea. The resulting phylogeny, based on the coding sequences of up to 1049 nuclear genes, provides a robust hypothesis for the generic relationships within Heliozelidae. On the basis of this analysis, the genus Plesiozela, previously proposed sister group of all other Heliozelidae, is excluded from the family and transferred to Incurvariidae. Additionally, we incorporated fossil and secondary time calibrations into our phylogeny and estimated that Heliozelidae ancestors first appeared at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous, approximately 95 Mya. Finally, we propose an ancestral biogeographical range hypothesis of the family, based on a combination of our transcriptome data and a previous multigene study including over 100 species. We suggest the origins of the Heliozelidae were in the Australian region, with subsequent expansions to the rest of the world.
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Context: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by excess FGF23, hypophosphatemia, skeletal abnormalities, and growth impairment. We aimed to understand the burden of disease of XLH across the life span. Methods: Responses were collected from adults with XLH and parents/caregivers of a child with XLH in an online survey, including multiple-choice and open-ended questions on demographics, disease manifestations, treatment history, assistive device use, and age-specific patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Results: Data was collected from 232 adults with XLH (mean age 45.6 years, 76% female), and 90 parents/caregivers of a child with XLH (mean age 9.1 years, 56% female). Mean age recalled for symptom onset was 3.2 years for adults and 1.3 years for children. When surveyed, nearly all children (99%) and 64% of adults were receiving oral phosphate, active vitamin D, or both. Prior participation in a trial investigating burosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, was reported in 3% of children and 10% of adults; of these respondents, only one child reported current treatment with burosumab at the time of the survey. Both children and adults reported typical features of XLH including abnormal gait (84% and 86%, respectively), bowing of the tibia/fibula (72% and 77%), and short stature (80% and 86%). Nearly all adults (97%) and children (80%) reported bone or joint pain/stiffness. Adults reported a history of fractures (n/N = 102/232; 44%), with a mean (SD) age at first fracture of 26 (16) years. Adults reported osteophytes (46%), enthesopathy (27%), and spinal stenosis (19%). Mean scores for PROs evaluating pain, stiffness, and physical function were worse than population norms. Analgesics were taken at least once a week by 67% of adults. Conclusions: Despite the common use of oral phosphate and active vitamin D established in the 1980s, children with XLH demonstrate a substantial disease burden, including pain and impaired physical functioning that persists, as demonstrated by similar responses reported in adults with XLH.
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Data Types:
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Attention can be directed endogenously, based on task-relevant goals, or captured exogenously, by salient stimuli. While recent studies have shown that endogenous attention can facilitate behavior through dissociable sensitivity (sensory) and choice bias (decisional) mechanisms, it is unknown if exogenous attention also operates through dissociable sensitivity and bias mechanisms. We tested human participants on a multialternative change detection task with exogenous attention cues, which preceded or followed change events in close temporal proximity. Analyzing participants’ behavior with a multidimensional signal detection model revealed clear dissociations between exogenous cueing effects on sensitivity and bias. While sensitivity was, overall, lower at the cued location compared to other locations, bias was highest at the cued location. With an appropriately designed post-cue control condition, we discovered that the attentional effect of exogenous pre-cueing was to enhance sensitivity proximal to the cue. In contrast, exogenous attention enhanced bias even for distal stimuli in the cued hemifield. Reaction time effects of exogenous cueing could be parsimoniously explained with a diffusion-decision model, in which drift rate was determined by independent contributions from sensitivity and bias at each location. The results suggest a mechanistic schema of how exogenous attention engages dissociable sensitivity and bias mechanisms to shape behavior.
Data Types:
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  • Dataset
Climate change is affecting both the volume and distribution of precipitation, which in turn is expected to affect the growth and reproduction of plant populations. The near ubiquity of local adaptation suggests that adaptive differentiation may have important consequences for how populations are affected by and respond to changing precipitation. Here, we manipulated rainfall in a common garden to examine how differentiation among populations of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae) affects responses to water availability expected under climate change. We collected seeds from 26 populations along gradients of historical rainfall and used event-based rainout shelters and watering additions to simulate drier summer conditions and more extreme rainfall events, respectively. Ambrosia artemisiifolia had higher fitness on average under reduced rainfall, suggesting it may spread and become more abundant in areas projected to become hotter and drier during the summer months. We also found strong evidence for phenotypic and fitness clines across both latitude and longitude, and that phenological responses and fitness effects of altered rainfall depended on seed source or historical climate. The effect of rainfall treatment on female fitness was highest in western and mid longitudes, but there was little effect on eastern populations. Across latitude, the effect of rainfall treatment on male fitness was highest in southern populations. These phenology and fitness clines suggest that adaptive differentiation across the species’ range has the potential to shape future responses of A. artemisiifolia populations to climate change, particularly altered patterns of rainfall.
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  • File Set
Freshwater is one of the most critical elements for sustainable development of ecosystems and societies. River basins, concomitant with administrative zones, form a common unit for freshwater management. So far, no comprehensive, global analysis exists that would link the ecological challenges of the planet's river basins to the capacity of the societies to cope with them. We address this gap by performing a geospatial resilience analysis for a global set of 541 river basins. We use the social‐ecological systems (SES) approach by relating three ecological vulnerability factors (human footprint, natural hazards, water scarcity) with three adaptive capacity factors (governance, economy, human development), based on temporal trajectories from 1990 to 2015. Additionally, we examine resilience by subtracting ecological vulnerability from adaptive capacity. The most striking result is the fundamentally different patterns of controlling factors of the resilience in different developing regions, particularly those of Africa and Asia. Their root causes are particularly low adaptive capacity in Africa, and high ecological vulnerability in Asia. Alarmingly, the difference between those continents grew within the study period. Finally, this study highlights the rapid dynamics of adaptive capacity in comparison to ecological vulnerability, the latter having more inertia. Their fragile balance is of our interest; they can either support or counteract each other depending on the geographic location.
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Obligate avian brood parasites lay stronger eggs than their hosts or non-parasitic relatives because they are rounder and have a thicker eggshell. Additionally, some other characteristics of the brood parasitic eggshells related to their microstructure such as size and orientation of calcite crystal units could also contribute to generating even stronger shells. An eggshell microstructure formed by small randomly oriented calcite crystal units can increase the robustness of the eggshells of birds. Here, the eggshell microstructure of avian brood parasites as well as their hosts have been characterized in detail, using X-ray diffraction analyses to estimate the size and degree of orientation of calcite crystal units making the eggshell. Specifically, the brood parasitic great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) and two hosts (jackdaws, Corvus monedula and magpie, Pica pica) and one non-host species (the pigeon, Columba livia domestica) were considered. Calcite crystal of the eggshell of the brood parasitic species was smaller and more randomly oriented than those of the eggshells of non-parasitic species, which suggest that eggshell microstructure would contribute to explain why parasitic eggs are more resistant to breakage than those of their hosts.
Data Types:
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