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Understanding how wildlife responds to ever-encroaching urbanization is of great concern. Bats are the second-most speciose mammalian order and while many appear to be urban adapted, we currently have a limited understanding of their demography and habitat use within urban environments. Using a combination of captures to obtain demographic data, radio-telemetry to examine foraging and roosting behaviour, and data on diet and prey availability, we examined how big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), a synurbic species, use an urban green space (High Park) in Canada?s largest city centre, Toronto. We found that adult males outnumbered adult females more than two to one and that males were found throughout the park, while females were concentrated in an area with greater access to water, but lower prey availability. We also found that bats of both sexes were in poorer body condition than reported for other non-urban areas, including a site within southern Ontario. Our data suggest that High Park may not provide adequate resources for reproductive females as they were never found roosting in the park and beetles, their preferred prey, were limited. Although previous studies suggest urban green spaces may offer refuge to bats, most have not considered sex-specific responses to urbanization as they have largely been based on acoustic surveys. Our study therefore highlights the importance of considering demographic differences in response to urbanization to better inform urban management plans and green spaces.
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Motivation: Quality of gene expression analyses using de novo assembled transcripts in species that experienced recent polyploidization remains unexplored. Results: Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses using putative genes inferred by Trinity, Corset and Grouper performed slightly differently across five plant species that experienced various poly-ploidy histories. In species that lack recent polyploidy events that occurred in the past several millions of years, DGE analyses using de novo assembled transcriptomes identified 54–82% of the differen-tially expressed genes recovered by mapping reads to the reference genes. However, in species that experienced more recent polyploidy events, the percentage decreased to 21–65%. Gene co-expression network analyses using de novo assemblies vs. mapping to the reference genes recov-ered the same module that significantly correlated with treatment in one species that lacks recent polyploidization.
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1. Most studies on the evolution of migration focus on food, mates and/or climate as factors influencing these movements, whereas negative species interactions such as predators, parasites and pathogens are often ignored. Although infection and its associated costs clearly have the potential to influence migration, thoroughly studying these interactions is challenging without a solid theoretical framework from which to develop testable predictions in natural systems. 2. Here, we aim to understand when parasites favour the evolution of migration. 3. We develop a general model which enables us to explore a broad range of biological conditions and to capture population and infection dynamics over both ecological and evolutionary time scales. 4. We show that when migration evolves depends on whether the costs of migration and infection are paid in reduced fecundity or survival. Also important are the parasite transmission mode and spatiotemporal dynamics of infection and recovery (if it occurs). Finally, we find that partial migration (where only a fraction of the population migrates) can evolve but only when parasite transmission is density-dependent. 5. Our results highlight the critical, if overlooked, role of parasites in shaping long-distance movement patterns, and suggest that infection should be considered alongside more traditional drivers of migration in both empirical and theoretical studies.
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Most of our knowledge on human CNS circuitry and related disorders originates from model organisms. How well such data translate to the human CNS remains largely to be determined. Human brain slice cultures derived from neurosurgical resections may offer novel avenues to approach this translational gap. We now demonstrate robust preservation of the complex neuronal cytoarchitecture and electrophysiological properties of human pyramidal neurons in long-term brain slice cultures. Further experiments delineate the optimal conditions for efficient viral transduction of cultures, enabling "high throughput" fluorescence mediated 3D reconstruction of genetically targeted neurons at comparable quality to state-of-the-art biocytin fillings, and demonstrate feasibility of long term live cell imaging of human cells in vitro. This model system has implications toward a broad spectrum of translational studies, regarding the validation of data obtained in non-human model systems, for therapeutic screening and genetic dissection of human CNS circuitry.
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Crocodylomorpha, which includes living crocodylians and their extinct relatives, has a rich fossil record, extending back for more than 200 million years. Unlike modern semi-aquatic crocodylians, extinct crocodylomorphs exhibited more varied lifestyles, ranging from marine to fully terrestrial forms. This ecological diversity was mirrored by a remarkable morphological disparity, particularly in terms of cranial morphology, which seems to be closely associated with ecological roles in the group. Here, I use geometric morphometrics to comprehensively investigate cranial shape variation and disparity in Crocodylomorpha. I quantitatively assess the relationship between cranial shape and ecology (i.e. terrestrial, aquatic, and semi-aquatic lifestyles), as well as possible allometric shape changes. I also characterise patterns of cranial shape evolution and identify regime shifts. I found a strong link between shape and size, and a significant influence of ecology on the observed shape variation. Terrestrial taxa, particularly notosuchians, have significantly higher disparity, and shifts to more longirostrine regimes are associated with large-bodied aquatic or semi-aquatic species. This demonstrates an intricate relationship between cranial shape, body size and lifestyle in crocodylomorph evolutionary history. Additionally, disparity-through-time analyses were highly sensitive to different phylogenetic hypotheses, suggesting the description of overall patterns among distinct trees. For crocodylomorphs, most results agree in an early peak during the Early Jurassic and another in the middle of the Cretaceous, followed by nearly continuous decline until today. Since only crown-group members survived through the Cenozoic, this decrease in disparity was likely the result of habitat loss, which narrowed down the range of crocodylomorph lifestyles.
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Human and other animal cells deploy three closely related dioxygenases (PHD 1, 2 and 3) to signal oxygen levels by catalysing oxygen regulated prolyl hydroxylation of the transcription factor HIF. The discovery of the HIF prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes as oxygen sensors raises a key question as to the existence and nature of non-HIF substrates, potentially transducing other biological responses to hypoxia. Over 20 such substrates are reported. We therefore sought to characterise their reactivity with recombinant PHD enzymes. Unexpectedly, we did not detect prolyl-hydroxylase activity on any reported non-HIF protein or peptide, using conditions supporting robust HIF-α hydroxylation. We cannot exclude PHD-catalysed prolyl hydroxylation occurring under conditions other than those we have examined. However, our findings using recombinant enzymes provide no support for the wide range of non-HIF PHD substrates that have been reported.
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Spectral Induced Polarization spectra were carried out on 3 graphitic schists and 2 graphitic sandstones. The microstructural arrangement of graphite of two graphitic schists was studied with thin sections using transmitted and reflected light optical and electron microscopic methods. Chemical maps of selected areas confirm the presence of carbon. The complex conductivity spectra were measured in the frequency range 10 mHz to 45 kHz and in the temperature range +20°C down to -15°C. The measured spectra are fitted with a double Cole Cole complex conductivity model with one component associated with the polarization of graphite and the second component associated with the Maxwell Wagner polarization. The Cole Cole exponent and the chargeability are observed to be almost independent of temperature including in freezing conditions. The conductivity and relaxation time are dependent on the temperature in a predictable way. As long as the temperature decreases, the electrical conductivity decreases and the relaxation time increases. A finite element model is able to reproduce the observed results. In this model, we consider an intra-grain polarization mechanism for the graphite and a change of the conductivity of the background material modeled with an exponential freezing curve. One of the core sample (a black schist), very rich in graphite, appears to be characterized by a very high conductivity (approximately 30 S m-1). Two induced polarization profiles are discussed in the area of Thorens. The model is applied to the chargeability data to map the volumetric content of graphite.
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The community of microorganisms in the gut is affected by host species, diet and environment and is linked to normal functioning of the host organism. Although the microbiome fluctuates in response to host demands and environmental changes, there are core groups of microorganisms that remain relatively constant throughout the hosts lifetime. Ruminants are mammals that rely on highly specialized digestive and metabolic modifications, including microbiome adaptations, to persist in extreme environments. Here, we assayed the fecal microbiome of four mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations in western North America. We quantified fecal microbiome diversity and composition among groups in the wild and captivity, across populations and in a single group over time. There were no differences in community evenness or diversity across groups, although we observed a decreasing diversity trend across summer months. Pairwise sample estimates grouped the captive population distinctly from the wild populations, and moderately grouped the southern wild group distinctly from the two northern wild populations. We identified 33 genera modified by captivity, with major differences in key groups associated with cellulose degradation that likely reflect differences in diet. Our findings are consistent with other ruminant studies and provide baseline microbiome data in this enigmatic species, offering valuable insights into the health of wild alpine ungulates.
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In large clonal populations, several clones generally compete which results in complex evolutionary and ecological dynamics: experiments show successive selective sweeps of favorable mutations as well as long-term coexistence of multiple clonal strains. The mechanisms underlying either coexistence or fixation of several competing strains have rarely been studied altogether. Conditions for coexistence has mostly been studied by population and community ecology, while rates of invasion and fixation have mostly been studied by population genetics. In order to provide a global understanding of the complexity of the dynamics observed in large clonal populations, we develop a stochastic model where three clones compete. Competitive interactions can be intransitive and we suppose that strains enter the population via mutations or rare immigrations. We first describe all possible final states of the population, including stable coexistence of two or three strains, or the fixation of a single strain. Second, we give estimate of the invasion and fixation times of a favorable mutant (or immigrants) entering the population in a single copy. We especially show that invasion and fixation can be slower or faster when considering complex competitive interactions. Third, we explore the parameter space assuming prior distributions of reproduction, death and competitive rates and we estimate the likeliness of the possible dynamics. We especially show that when mutations can affect competitive interactions, even slightly, stable coexistence is likely. We discuss our results in the context of the evolutionary dynamics of large clonal populations.
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We reassessed whether two parapatric non-sister Australian honeyeater species (Aves: Meliphagidae), varied and mangrove honeyeaters (Gavicalis versicolor and G. fasciogularis, respectively), that diverged from a common ancestor c. 2.5 Mya intergrade in the Townsville area of north-eastern Queensland. Consistent with a previous specimenbased study, by using genomics methods we show one-way gene flow for autosomal but not Z-linked markers from varied into mangrove honeyeaters. Introgression barely extends south of the area of parapatry in and around the city of Townsville. While demonstrating the long-term porosity of species boundaries over several million years, our data also suggest a clear role of sex chromosomes in maintaining reproductive isolation.
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