Contributors:Paola Letardi, Barbara Salvadori, Monica Galeotti, Andrea Cagnini, Simone Porcinai, Alessandra Santagostino Barbone, Antonio Sansonetti
A multi-analytical approach was adopted to compare different cleaning methods during the conservation works on two bronze artefacts: the Brera's Napoleon by A. Canova and the Florence Baptistery's North Door by L. Ghiberti. An appropriate number of surface areas were identified, and their properties and homogeneity were characterised in situ by means of colorimetry, Eddy Current patina thickness measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). On the Napoleon statue, three sets of laser cleaning parameters were adopted on distinct selected areas. On the North Door, a mechanical and two chemical cleaning methods were applied on two separate areas; both chemical methods were based on Agar gel. The results on surface composition, appearance and corrosion rate of the different cleaning methods were compared with the properties of the uncleaned area with the same set of in situ analytical techniques. Measurements results were statistically analysed to take into account the lack of homogeneity typical of outdoor bronze surfaces.
Contributors:Y.H. Lei, R.X. Yu, T. Shibayama, J. Ishioka, S. Watanabe
Herein is reported the dots alignment of Au nano-submicron particles (Au-NPs) on a chemical vapor-deposited β-SiC substrate through nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation-induced dewetting of an Au thin film, which was successfully observed by in-situ high-voltage electron microscopy. The initial stages of the Au-NPs array arrangement were also successfully observed, and long-range quasi-two-dimensional Au-NPs arrangements were found after laser irradiation. Moreover, the effect of Rayleigh instability to form multiple Au-NPs in each line of the network structure after the hole growth in the Au thin film was confirmed.
Contributors:Maria H. Vakarelska-Popovska, Zhivko Velkov
The flavonoids with antioxidant properties are polyfunctional compounds in general but their activity is associated with a specific hydroxyl group. In this study we present the enthalpy of all ten monohydroxy flavones calculated by a quantum-chemical method. The optimization of the geometry has been performed with the B3LYP functional and the standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The objective is to estimate the effect of the position of a hydroxyl group on the radical-scavenging activity of these compounds. The results have shown that the most expected mechanism for the reaction of monohydroxy flavones with active radicals in water is SPLET.
Contributors:Mang Shao, Danhang Tang, Yang Liu, Tae-Kyun Kim
Videos tend to yield a more complete description of their content than individual images. And egocentric vision often provides a more controllable and practical perspective for capturing useful information. In this study, we presented new insights into different object recognition methods for video-based rigid object instance recognition. In order to better exploit egocentric videos as training and query sources, diverse state-of-the-art techniques were categorised, extended and evaluated empirically using a newly collected video dataset, which consists of complex sculptures in clutter scenes. In particular, we investigated how to utilise the geometric and temporal cues provided by egocentric video sequences to improve the performance of object recognition. Based on the experimental results, we analysed the pros and cons of these methods and reached the following conclusions. For geometric cues, the 3D object structure learnt from a training video dataset improves the average video classification performance dramatically. By contrast, for temporal cues, tracking visual fixation among video sequences has little impact on the accuracy, but significantly reduces the memory consumption by obtaining a better signal-to-noise ratio for the feature points detected in the query frames. Furthermore, we proposed a method that integrated these two important cues to exploit the advantages of both.
Contributors:Roxana-Maria Amarandi, Gertrud Malene Hjortø, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Stefanie Karlshøj
The chemokine system mediates leukocyte migration during homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Traditionally, it is described as redundant and promiscuous, with a single chemokine ligand binding to different receptors and a single receptor having several ligands. Signaling of chemokine receptors occurs via two major routes, G protein- and β-arrestin-dependent, which can be preferentially modulated depending on the ligands or receptors involved, as well as the cell types or tissues in which the signaling event occurs. The preferential activation of a certain signaling pathway to the detriment of others has been termed signaling bias and can accordingly be grouped into ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue bias. Bias has so far been broadly overlooked in the process of drug development. The low number of currently approved drugs targeting the chemokine system, as well as the broad range of failed clinical trials, reflects the need for a better understanding of the chemokine system. Thus, understanding the character, direction, and consequence of biased signaling in the chemokine system may aid the development of new therapeutics. This review describes experiments to assess G protein-dependent and -independent signaling in order to quantify chemokine system bias.
Physically-based, fully integrated surface water (SW)-groundwater (GW) models have been increasingly used in water resources research and management. The integrated modeling involves a large amount of scientific data. The use of three-dimensional (3D) visualization software to integrate all the scientific data into a comprehensive system can facilitate the interpretation and validation of modeling results. Nevertheless, at present few software tools can efficiently perform data visualization for integrated SW–GW modeling. In this study, a visualization tool named IHM3D was designed and developed specifically for integrated SW–GW modeling. In IHM3D, spatially distributed model inputs/outputs and geo-referenced data sets are visualized in a virtual globe-based 3D environment. End users can conveniently explore and validate modeling results within the 3D environment. A GSLFOW (an integrated SW–GW model developed by USGS) modeling case in the Heihe River Basin (Northwest China) was used to demonstrate the applicability of IHM3D at a large basin scale. The visualization of the modeling results significantly improved the understanding of the complex hydrologic cycle in this water-limited area, and provided insights into the regional water resources management. This study shows that visualization tools like IHM3D can promote data and model sharing in the water resources research community, and make it more practical to perform complex hydrological modeling in real-world water resources management.
Contributors:Jayoung Kim, Somayeh Imani, William R. de Araujo, Julian Warchall, Gabriela Valdés-Ramírez, Thiago R.L.C. Paixão, Patrick P. Mercier, Joseph Wang
This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications.