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Babesia microti is a tick-transmitted zoonotic hemoprotozoan parasite. In the present study, we investigated B. microti infection in questing ticks in Mongolia. A total of 219 questing ticks were collected from three different Mongolian provinces (Bayan-Olgii, Khovsgol, and Selenge). Of these, 63 from Selenge were identified as Ixodes persulcatus, while the remaining 156 (from all three provinces) were identified as Dermacentor nuttalli. When the tick DNA samples were screened using a B. microti-specific nested PCR, 19 (30.2%) of the 63 I. persulcatus ticks were found to be B. microti-positive. The parasite was not detected in D. nuttalli. Subsequently, the 18S rRNA, cox1, and tufA sequences of B. microti were amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Sequencing analyses showed that the Mongolian 18S rRNA, cox1, and tufA sequences were 99.6–100%, 96.7–97.2%, and 94.7–95.3% homologous, respectively, with B. microti R1 strain US-type sequences from humans. In the phylogenetic analyses, the Mongolian cox1 and tufA sequences were found to be separate lineages, which formed sister-clades to the R1 strain sequences, while all of the Mongolian B. microti 18S rRNA sequences were clustered within US-type clade containing several other sequences of human origin. In conclusion, in addition to reporting the presence of B. microti for the first time in questing ticks in Mongolia, the present study found that Mongolian I. persulcatus ticks were infected with US-type B. microti. These findings warrant large-scale studies to detect and characterize B. microti in ticks, small mammals, and humans. Such studies should provide us with a better understanding of zoonotic Babesia epidemiology in Mongolia.
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with meniscal lesions.
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We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region
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A new method is developed for the preparation of a transparent electrically conductive hybrid polymer films which maintain their electrical conductivity when subjected to deformation in two and three dimensions including bending, stretching and twisting. These films are made by a hybrid roll to roll (R2R) process where electrically conductive nanofibers are partially embedded in solution cast dielectric polymer films such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyimide (PI) or polyurethanes (PU). Nanofibers partially embedded in films can be laser ablated to obtain in-plane anisotropic electrical conductivity created in the form of parallel conductive lines separated by non-conductive spaces on the film surface. The patterned films can be used for high resolution pixel addressable liquid crystal displays. There are several situations, such as wearable sensors, curved displays and advanced flexible OLED lightings, where elastic extensibility and/or permanent deformability are desired without significant loss of electrical conductivity. To satisfy this demand, the multifunctional films can be made elastic, thermally deformable with the judicious choice of materials comprising the nanofibers and the matrix they are embedded in. The multifunctional transparent conductive films are easily manufactured through a low-cost continuous hybrid roll to roll process. Furthermore, they can be used in future displays, solar cells, wearable electronics and skin attached sensors requiring flexibility as well as stretchability and more desirably subsequent recovery after cessation of stress and strains without any loss of electrical conductivity.
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Craniofacial deformities with multifactorial etiologies, such as cleft palate and facial dysmorphism, represent some of the most frequent congenital birth defects seen in humans. Their pathogeneses are often related to cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. During CNC cell migration, changes in cell shape and formation, as well as maintenance of subcellular structures, such as filopodia and lamellipodia, are dependent on the complex functions of Rho family small GTPases, which are regulators of actin cytoskeletal organization. Cdc42, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, is known to play critical roles in organogenesis of various tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of Cdc42 during craniofacial development, we generated CNC-derived cell-specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice (Cdc42fl/fl;P0-cre). Most of the Cdc42fl/fl;P0-cre neonates were viable at birth, though they appeared weaker and no milk was found in their stomachs, and all died within a few days. They had a short face and intracranial bleeding, and abnormal calcification of the cranium. Cdc42fl/fl;P0-cre neonates also demonstrated a cleft palate and there was no fusion of the secondary palate because of failure of palatal shelf elongation for the process of palate closure. Cdc42 is crucial for facial and palatal formation during craniofacial development.
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We examined whether a 3-month Japanese drum exercise program can ameliorate depressive mood and improve physical fitness in community-dwelling older women.
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Flavonoids, a group of natural compounds mainly derived from plants, are known to possess osteogenic effects in bone cells. Here, we aimed to test if flavonoid could induce a cholinergic enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as bone differentiation. In cultured rat osteoblasts, twenty flavonoids, deriving from Chinese herbs and having known induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP11ALP: alkaline phosphatase.) expression, were tested for its induction activity on AChE expression. Eleven flavonoids showed the induction, and five of them had robust activation of AChE expression, including baicalin, calycosin, genistin, hyperin and pratensein: the induction of AChE included the levels of mRNA, protein and enzymatic activity. Moreover, the flavonoid-induced AChE expression in cultured osteoblast was in proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked tetrameric globular form (G4) only. In parallel, the expression of PRiMA was also induced by the application of flavonoids. The flavonoid-induced AChE in the cultures was not affected by estrogen receptor blocker, ICI 182,780. Taken together, the induction of PRiMA-linked AChE in osteoblast should be independent to classical estrogen signaling pathway.
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In flow beads assays, the interference of IgM for IgG anti-HLA antibodies detection is not precisely understood. Using the screening flow beads assay for class I HLA antibodies, we analyzed the binding of two IgG mAbs, the anti-class I HLA W6/32 and an anti-beta-2-microglobulin, in the presence of an anti-beta-2-microglobulin IgM mAb. In neat serum, the IgM mAb impaired the detection of both IgG. In EDTA-treated serum, the interference was stronger for the anti-beta-2-microglobulin IgG than for W6/32, in agreement with the finding in surface plasmon resonance that this IgM competed with the anti-beta-2-microglobulin IgG but not with W6/32. The IgM interference was higher in neat than in EDTA-treated serum for both IgG mAbs. The IgM interference was also analyzed with class II single antigen flow beads and sera from two kidney recipients containing IgG and IgM donor specific antibodies. Anti-HLA IgG detection was partially corrected by EDTA, and restored by IgM inactivation with DTT, confirming the results observed with the mAbs. Therefore, three mechanisms can explain the IgM interference for IgG anti-HLA antibodies in flow beads assays: direct competition for antigen, steric hindrance and complement activation.
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Obesity has reached pandemic proportions, and there is mounting evidence that environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals known as “obesogens” may contribute to obesity and associated medical conditions. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill resulted in a massive environmental release of crude oil and remediation efforts applied large quantities of Corexit dispersants to the oil spill. The Corexit-enhanced Water Accommodated Fraction (CWAF) of DWH crude oil contains PPARγ transactivation activity, which is attributed to dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a probable obesogen. In addition to its use in oil dispersants, DOSS is commonly used as a stool softener and food additive. Because PPARγ functions as a heterodimer with RXRα to transcriptionally regulate adipogenesis we investigated the potential of CWAF to transactivate RXRα and herein demonstrated that the Corexit component Span 80 has RXRα transactivation activity. Span 80 bound to RXRα in the low micromolar range and promoted adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Further, the combination of DOSS and Span 80 increased 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation substantially more than treatment with either chemical individually, likely increasing the obesogenic potential of Corexit dispersants. From a public health standpoint, the use of DOSS and Span 80 as food additives heightens concerns regarding their use and mandates further investigations.
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Vitamin D deficiency is associated with beta-cell dysfunction and a higher risk of diabetes, but mice and humans with an absence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) display normal glucose tolerance. Here, we investigated the direct effects of absence of VDR or absence of ligand activation of VDR on beta-cell function. For this purpose, we generated mice, with a mutation in the AF2 domain of Vdr (VDRΔAF2), preventing ligand-driven transcriptional activation of vitamin D responsive genes.
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