Contributors:Wolfgang Winkler, Johannes Borngräber, Bernd Heinemann
Photograph of the oscillator chip.
... Tuning curve of the LC oscillator.
... Simulation results and measurement of the 117GHz oscillator (VEE=-3V)
... Circuit diagram of the high frequencyoscillator.
Contributors:Hojat Ghonoodi, Hossein Miar-Naimi, Mohammad Gholami
Plot of oscillationfrequency versus the number of stage for sinusoidal case. Vbias=0.7, Iss=[0.6_1mA], Wn/L=7/0.18, Wp/L=10/0.18.
... Plot of oscillationfrequency versus resistor load for sinusoidal case. N=3, Wn/L=[4/0.18_10/0.18], Cl=[67.5fF_87fF], Iss=1mA.
... The chain of delay stages in (a) a single-ended ring oscillator and (b) a differential ring oscillator.
... Ring oscillators... Plot of oscillationfrequency versus the number of stage for exponential case. Vbias=0.7, Iss=[0.6_1mA], Wn/L=15/0.18, Wp/L=10/0.18.
... Plot of oscillationfrequency versus external capacitor for exponential case. N=3, Wn/L=15/0.18, RL=1.5k, Iss=1mA.
Contributors:D. Arbet, V. Stopjaková, M. Kováč
Oscillationfrequency selection... Sallen-Key HPF-based oscillator.
... Oscillation test... Sallen-Key LP filter turned to an oscillator.
Contributors:Niko Bako, Adrijan Baric
Oscillator... Block scheme of the oscillator.
... Reference current and the oscillatorfrequency variations as a function of supply voltage and temperature obtained by simulations. (a) Reference current variation for typical (TT), slow (SS) and fast (FF) process corners with respect to the reference current at room temperature. (b) Frequency variation for typical, slow and fast corners with a supply voltage as a parameter with respect to frequency at room temperature.
... The oscillator layout.
... Supply voltage compensated frequency... Simulated oscillator output.
... Temperature compensated frequency
Modified He’s frequency formulation method... Nonlinear oscillators
Somatosensory evoked potentials of a normal subject. Two SEPs are superimposed in a single trace. A few small notches were seen on the ascending slope of N20 in raw SEPs (A). The onset of N20 component was 15.7 ms (dotted line). Oscillation potentials were clearly detectable and their amplitudes were measurable in SEPs filtered at 500 to 1000 Hz (B). Three potentials (indicated by arrows) were judged as significant (larger than 3 times mean amplitude range of background recordings) peaks of an oscillation.
... The amplitudes of oscillation potentials (A) and their size ratios to the main components of SEP (B,C) were plotted against the groups of their onset latencies. (•, controls; ○, Parkinson's disease; ×, myoclonus epilepsy). The latencies for the 1st to 10th groups were 0.0–1.2, 1.3–2.5, 2.6–3.9, 4.0–5.3, 5.4–7.0, 7.1–8.7, 8.8–10.4, 10.5–12.1, 12.2–12.8 and 12.9–14.5 ms. The amplitudes of oscillation potentials are shown in (A), the ratio of the amplitude of oscillation potential to that of N20o-N20p [ratio (osc/N20o-N20p)] in (B), and the ratio of oscillation potential to N20p-P25p [ratio (osc/N20p-N25p)] in (C). (A) In PD patients, the sizes of some oscillation potentials were abnormally larger than the normal oscillation potentials in the first to sixth groups. In contrast, in patients with ME, extremely enlarged oscillations were observed in the fourth to tenth groups. (B) The ratios (osc/N20o-N20p) for abnormally enlarged oscillation potentials were significantly larger than the normal values in both patients with PD and ME. (C) In PD patients, the ratios (osc/N20p-P25p) for enlarged oscillation peaks were again abnormally larger than the normal values. In ME patients, however, those for enlarged potentials were the same as the normal values for earlier (1st to 5th) group oscillation potentials. In patients with ME, oscillation potentials were present at late latencies when they were never seen in normal subjects.
... High-frequencyoscillation... SEPs of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Several notches were clearly seen on the ascending and descending slopes of N20 even in conventional SEPs (A). The onset of N20 (14.4 ms) following the end of P14 subcortical component is shown by a dashed line. Six oscillation potentials (indicated by arrows) followed P14 in highly filtered (500–1000 Hz) SEPs (B). Four of them (indicated by large arrows) were abnormally enlarged (>mean+3 SD of normal values). This patient was considered to have a giant oscillation.
... Histograms of the onset latencies of oscillation potentials in normal subjects (A) and Parkinson's disease patients (B). There were five groups in the onset latencies of oscillation potentials in normal subjects (A). In patients with Parkinson's disease, oscillation potentials were observed at almost the same latency groups as normals (B).
... SEPs of a patient with myoclonus epilepsy (ME). In conventional SEPs (A), the latencies of N20, P25 and N33 components were within the normal range even though the N20-P25 and P25-N33 amplitudes were extremely enlarged. Several oscillation potentials were seen on the slope from P25 to N33 and descending slope of N33. Clearly differentiated 9 oscillation potentials (arrows) were detected in SEPs filtered 500–1000 Hz (B). Seven of them (third to ninth potentials) were abnormally large (large arrows). The onset of sixth potential was 8.9 ms. The last 4 oscillation potentials were evoked at the latencies when no oscillation potentials were observed in normals.
Contributors:Li Wang, Qingmei Kong, Ke Li, Yunai Su, Yawei Zeng, Qinge Zhang, Wenji Dai, Mingrui Xia, Gang Wang, Zhen Jin, Xin Yu, Tianmei Si
Brain regions showing significant group and frequency (slow-4 and slow-5) interaction effects on ALFF.
... The group and frequency (slow-4 and slow-5) interaction effects on ALFF. The regions showing significant group and frequency interaction effects on ALFF (hot colors): the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (a), the left inferior frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus (b), and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (c). The bar maps show the mean ALFF values for these regions.
... Low-frequencyoscillation... Frequency dependence... Main effects of group and frequency on ALFF. (a) The group main effects on ALFF. Hot colors represent increased ALFF in the MDD group compared with HC, while the blue colors represent the opposite. (b) Frequency main effects on ALFF. Hot colors represent increased ALFF in the slow-5 as compared to slow-4 band, while the blue colors represent the opposite. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
The oscillation amplitude of impingement plane at z=−L in Reactor II at various (a) excitation amplitudes and (b) excitation frequencies.
... The relationship between frequency and Reynolds number in Reactor II. () self-sustained flapping oscillationfrequencies with excitation, and () the excitation frequencies corresponding to excited deflecting oscillation.
... Summary of oscillation behaviors in T-jets reactors with and without excitation.
... Oscillation amplitude of impingement plane at z=−L in Reactor I at various (a) excitation amplitudes and (b) excitation frequencies.
... Oscillation behavior... Flapping oscillationfrequencies of the impingement plane at z=−L in Reactor I.
Contributors:D. Sugny, M. Ndong, D. Lauvergnat, Y. Justum, M. Desouter-Lecomte
Dynamics controlled by f-STIRAP strategy for the preparation of the superposed state |R〉. Panels (a) and (b) show, respectively, the evolution of the localization in the right well for different values of λ and the Rabi frequencies of the different pulses. Rabi frequencies are in atomic units. The solid line of panel (b) corresponds to the Stokes pulse and the dashed one to the pump pulse. The total duration of the process is of the order of 4.5ps.
... Qubit... Half-live time τ1/2 in fs and the time τmax for which C(t) (Eq. (12)) vanishes for the two reference frequencies (Eq. (7)) and temperatures used in the simulations
... Robustness of the f-STIRAP process as a function of the peak Rabi frequency and the delay between the pulses for a total duration of 4.5ps of the overall field. Rabi frequency and delay are in atomic units. The upper and the lower part of the figure correspond, respectively, to λ=5×10−4 and λ=2×10−3.